King Qian Manifests In A Dream 錢王現夢

Song Gaozong (r. 1127-62) was the ninth son of Huizong (r. 1100-26). While his mother, the Empress Wei, was pregnant, Huizong dreamed that the King of Wuyue Qian Chu came to call on him.[1] On waking, he marvelled at this. It was the second year Daguan (1108 CE). At Gaozong’s birth, a red light filled the palace chamber. In the second year Xuanhe (1120), he was given the title Prince of Kang. At the turn of the Jingkang era (1126-27), the prince was often sent to the Jin as a hostage and spent time among their troops. When the Jin Crown Prince and the Prince of Kang traded bowshots, the latter hit all three volleys, smashing their arrowheads and leaving them hanging together in bundles. The Jin prince was terrified, believing that he was a deity, and thinking silently to himself: “The Song crown prince has grown up [7] deep within the palace, accustomed to wealth and station, so horse riding cannot be his strong point. Now, such expert archery must mean that the southern court have selected a skilled warrior from amongst their clan to take the prince’s place as a hostage; he must be an impostor. Keeping him is of no benefit; he should be returned. Exchanging him and having the true crown prince come as a hostage would be better.” In this way Gaozong won his release.

Changing his clothes he ran helter-skelter down a side road, and when the strength in his legs eventually gave way to exhaustion, he took a nap between the steps of the Cuifujun Temple. In his dream he heard a spirit telling him “The Jin have sent soldiers here; you must leave quickly.” The Prince of Kang looked all around, unsure what to do, and the spirit spoke again: “There is a horse prepared and waiting at the gate; leave quickly, great prince; you must not be caught.” The Prince of Kang awoke from his dream to find a horse already by his side. Leaping atop his mount, the prince galloped away to the south, covering seven hundred li in a single day. When he came to cross the (Yellow) River, his horse would not advance, and when he looked down he realised that it was made of mud. He then understood how the spirits had helped him. Seeking a crossing, he arrived, extremely hungry and thirsty, at a small village, and received food from a very old woman. She invited him inside, and then went back out in front of the house. Just then a number of mounted soldiers arrived in pursuit, and asked her: “There is an official, dressed like us; has he passed this way or not?” The elderly woman considered these words awhile, thinking about the manner of the man she’d just fed, and replied: “It has been several days since he passed through.” His pursuers beat their riding crops against their saddles, exclaiming: “Alas! Alas!” They then turned back, giving up the chase.

When the old woman went back to him, she said: “I see that the official is no vagabond; could it be that you are a person of the imperial palace? Just now some pursuit riders came asking questions, but I have hoodwinked them and they turned back.” The Prince of Kang replied: “I am fleeing to the south, and have arrived here famished and thirsty. I am indebted to you, but faced with these questions in truth I dare not answer, but wish to keep my secret.” The old woman said: “May the Great Prince please be at ease.” After a little while, she prepared a meal and brought it, also taking out several hundred liang of silver and presenting it to him, explaining: “My son was Li Rushui, and he died as their captive. I wish the great prince to devote this to the service of the realm.” The Prince of Kang was therefore able to flee to Xiangzhou and issue a proclamation recruiting troops to rescue the princes.

He then ascended the Flying Immortal Pavilion within the prefectural garden, took up bow and arrow and, looking at its inscribed board, prayed: “If I hit that tablet, I will ‘pay heed to news from the capital’” (i.e., play a role in governing the realm). He fired three times and did indeed hit three times, and those around him were deeply moved and congratulated one another. He also spoke to the commanding officer: “In the night I dreamed that an emperor removed his imperial robes and gave them to me. I removed my former robes and dressed myself in his gifts; what omen does this carry?” After a little while, the city gates were sealed as the official attendant Qin Zaiji had arrived with an imperial decree hidden within a wax medicine ball. This ordered him to serve as commander-in-chief, and to issue forth with an army. Just as the prince set out from Xiangzhou, an envoy galloped up to report that the Yellow River had not fully frozen over. The multitude all turned pale. The prince prayed to the spirits of heaven and earth and to the rivers. When they arrived at the Zihedu crossing, the river had become solid ice, so they went straight over. At that time, Huizong and Qinzong (r. 1125-27) had already departed on their ‘northern hunt’, and an imperial rescript from Huizong was presented, which read: “It would be better to ascend the throne than come to rescue your [8] father and mother.” Moreover, there was a decree from the Yuanyou Empress addressed to the Prince of Kang, which said, in outline: “Only when the House of Han had suffered ten generations of hardship did the prosperity of Guangwu arise; the lord having been presented with nine sons, only Chong’er (Duke Wen of Jin, 697–628 BCE) remained.[2] This can only be heaven’s will; how could it possibly be by human design?” The Prince of Kang bowed and accepted this, ascending the throne in Nanjing.

Anon, Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 前1.6-8 (Tale 8)

錢王現夢

宋高宗,徽宗第九子也。母韋后在娠時,徽宗夜夢吳越王錢俶來謁,覺而異之,時大觀二年也。高宗生於宮中,紅光滿室。宣和二年,封康王。靖康之變,康王常質金人軍中,金國太子與康王同出射,連發三矢皆中,破其筈,纍纍懸於其上。金太子驚以為神,默計之曰:「宋太子生長 [7] 深宮,狃於富貴,鞍馬非其所長。今善射如此,意南朝揀選宗室中之長於武藝者冒名為質,必非真也。留之無益,不如遣還,換真太子來質乃善。」高宗由是得逸。遂易服間道奔竄,足力疲睏,乃假寐於崔府君廟階砌間,夢神人報曰:「金人追兵至,必速去之。」康王徬徨四顧,神曰:「已備馬門首伺侯矣,大王急行,毋為所及也。」康王驚夢,則馬已在其側矣。王踴躍上馬,疾馳而南,一日行七百里,渡河而馬不前,下視之,則泥馬也,始悟為神物之助。暨河渡,至一村莊,飢渴甚,謁飯於一老嫗。嫗延入莊內坐,復出莊前,則有數騎追至,問:「有一官人,狀貌若是,曾從此過否?」嫗思其言狀貌類謁飯者,乃答之:「已過數日矣。」追騎以鞭敲鞍曰:「可惜!可惜!」遂返而不追。嫗歸,語曰:「吾觀官人非客旅也,得非宮中人乎?適有追騎來問,吾已紿之而還矣。」康王曰:「吾奔逃至南,飢渴至此,既承見問,敢不實對,願密之。」嫗曰:「請大王安心。」少頃,辦飯進,因出銀數百兩以獻曰:「吾兒李若水也,已死於虜矣。國家大事,願大王勉之。」康王由此奔相州,揭榜召兵勤王。因登郡圃飛仙亭,視其牌額,持弓矢而祝曰:「若中此牌,則必聞京師音耗。」果三發三中,左右動色相賀。又語幕府曰: 「夜來夢皇帝脫所御袍賜吾,吾解舊衣而服(「服」原作「復」,據元刻本改。)所賜,此何祥也?」頃時京師闔門祗候秦仔齎蠟詔來,命為大元帥,速頒兵入衛。時王發兵相州,使臣馳報黃河未凍,衆失色,王禱天地河神。行至子河渡,而河冰凍已合,遂渡河。時徽宗、欽宗已北狩矣,有使臣曹勛自河北竄歸,進徽宗御札曰:「便可即真,來救 [8] 父母。」又奉元祐皇后手詔迎康王,其略曰:「漢家之厄十世,宜光武之中興;獻公之子九人,惟重耳之尚在。茲乃天意,夫豈人謀!」康王拜受,遂即位於南京。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.) Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986)

[1] This is Qian Chu 錢俶 (929-88, r. 947-78, courtesy name Wende 文德, known as Qian Hongchu 錢弘俶 until 960), the last king of Wuyue, who surrendered his kingdom to the Song. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qian_Chu.

[2] This seems to refer to the famous and unexpected ascendance of Duke Wen in 636 BCE after a period of turbulence. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duke_Wen_of_Jin.

Unfilial Service To In-Laws 事姑不孝

The mother of Li Sheng, of Xingzhou, was old and somewhat blind, and Li Sheng served her with great filial piety. Whenever he went out, he worried that his wife, née Jin, might fail to serve her properly, so always repeated his instructions to her several times, only setting off after he had done so. The lady Jin did not heed her husband’s advice, and did not observe the proper manners. His mother complained and grumbled about her a great deal, and Jin resented this. When she was preparing to bake shaobing biscuits to give to her mother-in-law, she noticed that dung from their baby son lay next to her. Jin took this and added it to the flour of the biscuit filling. Li’s mother had eaten half of the biscuit when she became aware if a horrible smell and could eat no more, leaving the rest and waiting for her son to return. When Li arrived, he saw that his mother had been fed with filth, so took up a cane and beat Jin until she fled, vanishing into the distance. Suddenly, a disembodied voice reported: “Yesterday the fugitive entered the King Guan Temple.” When Li Sheng went to the temple, he saw a dog lying beneath the offerings table, glowering so fiercely he did not dare approach. He then called for Jin’s mother and father to come and see, at which the hound wept streams of tears and explained: “I ought not to have served up filth to my mother-in-law in such an unfilial manner. When I entered the temple I suddenly turned into a dog!” Several days later she died.

Long ago there was a woman called A Li, whose son travelled for trade, sometimes not returning for years at a time. Her daughter-in-law, Qisao, stayed in the home. Whenever this woman cooked she prepared two dishes; coarse grains for her mother-in-law, but white rice for herself. Li was troubled by the woman’s disobedience, but had to endure her insults. Even accepting the inedible meals presented to her, as Li did not dare speak up. One day the wife went to a neighbouring house, leaving her mother-in-law at home. A monk came holding his alms bowl and begging for rice, but Li said: “I can’t fill my own belly! How can I give alms?” When the monk pointed to the white rice in the kitchen, Li said: “That is what my daughter-in-law Qisao eats. I daren’t give that away. I worry that she would certainly humiliate and insult me when she comes back. I had coarse rice for my breakfast, and have a little left over to prepare for lunch; you could take that.” Before the monk could answer, they heard Qisao arrive outside. When the woman saw the monk eating, she said, quite furiously: “If you want my white rice, you should take off your kasaya robe[1] and hand it over in exchange.” The monk then removed his robe. As the younger woman picked it up, the monk suddenly [21] vanished. The kasaya wrapped around her body and turned into cowhide. Imprisoned within, she could not take it off. A growth of cow hairs grew across the chest opening, and, gradually, body, head, face, all transformed. Her parents were hastily summoned, but when they arrived she had entirely transformed into an ox!

Anon, Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 前1.20-21 (Tale 35)

事姑不孝

邢州李生母,年老目盲,李生事之至孝。每出外,慮其妻金氏侍奉有闕,必再三囑付之而後往。金氏不聽夫語,不盡禮,母甚埋怨,金氏憤之。恰值燒餅欲進母,傍有小兒阿糞,金氏乃以麵裹糞為餅餡以進,母食既半,覺臭穢不可食,遂留以待兒歸。李生歸,見其以穢物食母,持杖擊之,金氏奔走,尋邏不見。忽有人報云:「昨日奔入關王廟中。」李生入廟,見一狗伏於案下,睜目不敢親近。遂呼金氏父母來看,此狗流涕自稱曰:「我不合以穢物奉姑不孝,忽入廟中化為狗矣!」數日而卒。

昔有婦人阿李,有子出外經商,累年不歸,止有兒婦七嫂在家。婦每飯則兩炊,姑飯以麥,婦自白飯。李稍與婦忤,必受辱罵,至於麥飯亦不進食,李忍辱而不敢言。一日婦往鄰家,留姑守舍,有僧持缽至門乞飯,李曰:「我自不能飽,安有捨施!」僧指廚中白飯,李曰:「此我兒婦七嫂自吃底,我不敢以施人,恐歸必辱罵我。我但有早食麥飯,尚有一合留備午餉,如用即取去。」僧未答,聞七嫂外歸。婦見僧乞飯,大怒曰:「汝要我白飯,可脫袈裟換。」僧即脫下。婦纔披之,僧忽 [21] 不見,袈裟著身變為牛皮,牢不可脫,胸閭先生牛毛一片,漸變身體頭面。急執其父母至,則全身化為牛矣!

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.) Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986)

[1] On this robe, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kasaya_(clothing).

A Spirit Uproots A Tree 鬼拔樹

Towards the end of the Xingding 興定 era (1217-1220 CE), a peasant from Caozhou 曹州 was walking along the road one day, when he was caught in a sudden shower. From the empty air a voice spoke: “Brave enough?” He then heard a loud laughing sound. The person went on a further half-li, and saw a large willow tree torn up by its roots and thrown several dozen paces. In the mud there was the print of a great thigh and buttocks, about as big as a grain container. That spirit must have pulled up a tree and then just fallen on its back and laughed!

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), 2.26:

鬼拔樹

興定末,曹州一農民,一日行道中,忽驟雨。聞空中人語云:「敢否」?俄又聞大笑聲。此人行半里,見道左大柳樹拔根出,擲之十步外,泥中印大臀髀痕,如麥籠許,蓋神拔樹偃坐泥中破笑耳。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.) Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986)

The Commander of Huaixi 淮西軍將

At the end of the Yuanhe period (806-20 CE), there was a commander of Huaixi, who was sent to Bianzhou, and stopped at a courier station on the way. Late at night, when he was reaching deep sleep, he suddenly awoke to find something pressing heavily onto him. The general, well-trained and strong, leapt up in alarm and began to wrestle with it, after which the unidentified thing withdrew, and the general succeeded in wresting a leather bag from its hand. The ghost begged and implored with great bitterness from the darkness, so the commander addressed it: “If you tell me what it is, I will give it back.” The spirit said, after a long time, “This is a bag of surplus qi.” The commander then picked up a brick and struck out with it, at which the voice was silenced. The bag held several sheng (these are about a litre each), its contents were deep red in colour, and looked like lotus-root fibres; when carried in daylight it cast no shadow.

Taken from Youyang zazu.

Li Fang 李昉, et al., Taiping guangji 太平廣記 (Extensive Gleanings from the Era of Great Harmony), 10 vols (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1961), vii, 345.2733:

淮西軍將

元和末,有淮西軍將,使於汴州,止驛中。夜久,眠將熟,忽覺一物壓己,軍將素健,驚起,與之角力,其物遂退,因奪得手中革囊。鬼闇中哀祈甚苦,軍將謂曰:「汝語我物名,我當相還。」鬼良久曰:「此蓄氣袋耳。」軍將乃舉甓擊之,語遂絕。其囊可盛數升,絳色,如藕絲,攜於日中無影。出《酉陽雜俎》

 

An Elm Demon 榆木為怪

Lü Yijian, Duke Shen, served several times as a magistrate in Shu, but the name of his prefecture has been forgotten. The government office had long experienced a ghostly manifestation, named Great Aunt Yu, who was an elm spirit. In form she looked like an ancient and ugly woman, and she frequently emerged in the kitchen, encountered among a crowd of maids, who often saw her. The household, having seen her over a long period, did not think her strange. The Duke called out a question to her, at which she bowed low and said: “Your servant has long been resident in this hall, and though not human, I dare not cause misfortune.” The Duke then laid the matter aside and asked no more questions. She often predicted that he must later become very influential. One day she suddenly announced that she was pregnant, and the maids mocked her. She herself said that she would soon give birth, and then disappeared for over a month. Then, all of a sudden, her voice was heard, saying: “I have given birth; [264] please come and look. In the back garden, to the southwest of the elm tree, there’s another, and that’s my child.” They looked, and it was true.

Anon., Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 後2.263-64 (Tale 477):

榆木為怪

呂申公夷簡常通判蜀中,忘其郡名。廨宇中素有鬼物,號俞老姑,乃榆木精,其狀一老醜婦,常出廚間與羣婢為偶,或時見之。家人見之久,亦不為怪。公呼問之,即下階拜(「階拜」原作「拜階」,據抄配本改。)云:「妾在於(抄配本無「於」字。)堂府日久,雖非人,然不敢為禍。」公亦置而不問。常謂公他日必大貴。一日忽懷妊,羣婢戲之。自言非久當產,遂月餘不見。忽出云:「已產矣, [264] 請視之,後園榆木西南生大贅乃是。」視之,果然。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).

A Frog Becomes A Spirit 蝦蟆為精

Wei Heshan was receiving guests, and was with a Mr Shi in the official hostel. After three rounds of toasts, Heshan went in. Then two servant girls emerged, each holding a candle, and said: “The Grand Councillor invites Professor [261] Shi.” Mr Shi went in after them, and the other guests all marvelled at this. Shortly after, Heshan emerged and asked: “Where did Mr Shi go?” The crowd said: “He followed two maids sent to invite him in.” Heshan was alarmed, and asked: “Where are they?” He then ordered his retinue to go and search everywhere. They suddenly heard a human voice coming from the pond, and hurriedly kindled a fire to illuminate it. They found Mr Shi, jumping into the water and already half submerged. The gathered people helped him up and used the cooking fire to warm and revive him. When they asked him why, he said: “Following the two maids’ invitation I arrived below a great building, and entering the central hall found a person dressed in green robes seated in the middle, who indicated a young woman and said: ‘It is ordered that you take her to wife; the rites will be completed this night.’ The gathering then swarmed around us as we entered the bedchamber. Your servant said: ‘My elderly mother still lives; she has not been consulted. Not right! Not right!’ I had no idea that we were in the water.” The next day, Heshan ordered people to drain the pond and inside it they found a frog as big as a grain scoop, with only four or five small frogs. Some suspected that this was a frog spirit.

Anon., Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 後2.260-61 (Tale 473):

蝦蟆為精

魏鶴山會客,館中史先生與焉。酒三行,鶴山入內,忽有兩丫鬟秉二燭出,云:「參政請史教 [261] 授。」史君相隨而入,諸客怪之。少頃,鶴山出問:「史先生安往?」衆曰:「適先生令二婢請入內矣。」鶴山驚曰:「安有此?」於是令左右遍去搜尋,忽聞塘中人聲,急舉火照之,則史先生已半身投水矣。衆扶掖上,用火炙蘇,問其故,則曰:「適二丫鬟請到一大屋下,入中堂,有一人身綠衣坐於中,指一小女云: 『令與汝為妻,今夕成禮。』衆遂簇擁入房。某曰:『有老母在,未曾報覆,不可!不可!』不知身在水中。」次日,鶴山令人幹塘,內有蝦蟆一隻,大如斗,小蝦蟆四五而已。或者疑其為蝦蟆精也。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).

 

A Snake Steals Wine And Drinks 蛇竊酒飲

Zhou Bixian was supervisor of the Panfeng wine store in Wuxi County, Changzhou. He used fragrant medicinal material to produce his yeast, bringing forth a dense fragrant cloud. The flavour of his wine was pure and clear, and it was produced in top, middle and lower qualities. When distilling the wine, he made offerings to deities, slaughtering a sheep and a pig, carrying out the rite of the three offerings in his official robes, and when this was complete sending the wine out to all levels of officials at the court. One day, at the autumn offering, the storehouse clerk came reporting that there were holes in the clay of the highest grade wine flasks. When he was taken to see, several hundred flasks were indeed quite empty. The clerks thought it strange that those chosen and cleaned as offerings to the spirits had not been affected, and nobody knew the cause of it all. A month later, laughing voices were suddenly heard in the wine store, and when they peeped in they saw a crowd of children sucking from the mouths of the wine jars; when the doors were opened they all vanished into the earth. He hastily ordered that the floor be excavated, and at a depth of three chi (about 1m), they found a huge serpent lying drunk, with several dozen smaller snakes wound around beside it, and they realized that those spoiling the wine were snakes. His heart weighed down with doubt and bewilderment, gloomy and without joy, [lacuna] within two months he had resigned and returned to his home region.

Anon., Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 後2.258 (Tale 469):

蛇竊酒飲

周必先監無常州錫縣潘封酒庫,用香藥料造麯,香氣氤氳,酒味清洌,有上中下三等。酒熟祭神,刺羊刺豕,庫官展裹行三獻之禮,事畢分送朝官監司太守以下。一日秋祭,庫吏走報,謂上等酒瓶泥皆有孔,取而視之,則數百瓶皆空空如也。官吏以為怪,擇其潔者供祀神,不之顧,亦莫知所自也。越一月,忽聞酒庫有笑語聲,潛視之,則有羣小兒口吸瓶上,開門則失入地矣。急命掘地,深三尺,有巨蛇醉卧,數十小蛇旋繞其旁,始知壞酒者此蛇也。其心疑怪,鬱鬱不樂, [ ] 踰兩月以事罷歸。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).