The Haimen Tiger 海門虎

In the eighth month of the second year Chunxi (18 August to 16 September, 1175), in Xiasha, Haiman County, Tongzhou, a savage tiger suddenly emerged. Of the oxen, sheep, pigs and dogs belonging to the populace, a great many were consumed. The residents feared its coming, and when dusk fell would emerge to fend it off. The windows and doors of old Man Chen’s cottage were all flimsy and would collapse at a touch. Chen spoke to his wife and children, saying: “The tiger will only eat a certain number of people. Our family has eight members, and I fear we are due a catastrophe, so I will now go and undertake that role.” His wife and children lamented and urged him not to, but he paid no heed. When he opened the door, he saw the tiger. It bore an arrow in its flank, so he reached with his hand and pulled it out. The tiger leapt into the air and roared, made a show of great happiness, and departed. The next night, it threw a wild pig to them as a reward, and from then on was seen no more.

Hong Mai 洪邁, He Zhuo 何卓 (ed.), Yi Jian Zhi 夷堅志 (Record of Yi Jian) 4 volumes (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1981), iii, 庚, 4.1166:

海門虎

淳熙二年八月,通州海門縣下沙忽有虎暴,民家牛羊豬狗,遭食者多。居人畏其來,至暮輒出避。陳老翁村舍窗戶籬壁,皆為觸倒。陳語妻子曰:「虎吃人自係定數。我一家人八口,恐須有合受禍者,我今出外自當之。」妻子挽勸不聽。卽開門,見虎肋間帶一箭,手為之拔取。虎騰身哮吼,為感悅之狀而去。次夜,擲一野彘以報,自此絕跡。

A Pig’s Earring 猪耳鐶

The gentleman Jiang Songwei travelled from Shu via Xia, and on reaching the Yun’an Pass killed a pig as a temple sacrifice. When it came to washing the offering, he saw a single ring below one ear, inky coloured, clear and glistening; it must have formerly been a person and a thieving criminal.[1]

Hong Mai, Yi Jian Zhi, ii, 丙18.514

猪耳鐶

將仕郎宋衞自蜀道出峽,至雲安關,殺猪賽廟。洗牲時,見耳下一方鐶,墨色猶明潤,蓋必前身為人而犯盜者也。

Hong Mai 洪邁, He Zhuo 何卓 (ed.), Yi Jian Zhi 夷堅志 (Record of Yi Jian) 4 vols (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1981)

[1] This refers to the practice of tattooing a ring behind the ear as punishment for convicted thieves or bandits. On this practice, see Songshi 宋史 201.5018; Carrie E. Reed, ‘Tattoo in Early China’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 120 (2000), 360-76: 365. (the article is available online here)

A Well Becomes A Wine-Spring 井化酒泉

Fifteen li beyond the walls of Changdefu, in a place called River Underground, there was an Old Woman Cui, who sold tea for her living, and whenever she encountered a passing monk or Daoist, she would always give to them. One Daoist came and went more than ten times, and Old Woman Cui always gave him tea. The Daoist was deeply touched by this, and said to her: “I would like you to change your livelihood to selling wine; how about it?” Old Woman Cui was delighted. The Daoist leaned on his staff and clear liquid bubbled up where it touched the ground, at which he addressed Old Woman Cui: “This can be your wine.” When Old Woman Cui took it back with her, it tasted like wine, strong and fragrant, and the buyers came flocking to her. When they returned to drinking other people’s wine, these normal products were like water. Old Woman Cui profited greatly from this.

When the Daoist returned, Old Woman Cui thanked him over and over, but said: “I only regret I lack distiller’s dregs on which to raise pigs.” The Daoist grew angry at this grasping heart that did not know contentment, and leaned again on his staff at the spring, which returned to being water, never again tasting of wine. The wellspring exists to this day.

Anon., Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 後1.139 (Tale 245):

井化酒泉

常德府城外十五里,地名河洑,有崔婆者,賣茶為活,遇有僧道過往,必施與之。一道人往來凡十餘次,崔婆見之,必與茶。道人深感之,與之曰:「我欲使汝改業賣酒如何?」崔婆喜。道人以杖拄地,清水迸出,為崔婆言:「此可為酒。」崔婆取之以歸,味如酒,濃而香,買者如市。若他人汲之歸,則常品水也。崔婆大享其利。道人重來,崔婆再三謝之,但云:「只恨無糟養豬。」道人怒其貪心不足,再以杖拄泉,則復成水,無復酒味矣。其井至今尚存。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).

A Spring Contains A Pig-Dragon 泉有豬龍

By the side of a road in Qingshen County within Meizhou there is a small Buddha Hall, commonly known as the Buddha of the Sow Mother. When Su Dongpo (1037-1101) asked the local people about this, they said: “A century ago a sow prostrated herself there, and transformed into a spring with two carp; she was a pig-dragon. People petitioned the sow to grant them motherhood, and erected a Buddha Hall over it, hence the name.” The spring emerged upwards from rock, its depth not reaching two chi (about 66cm), but even in severe droughts it never stopped running. People could never see the carp, however. One day Dongpo told this to his wife’s brother Wang Yuan, but Yuan thought it absurd and preposterous. Unable to settle Yuan’s doubts, he went together with Yuan to pray at the spring, where the latter said: “Grant, if this is not all nonsense, another glimpse of the fish.” Before long the two carp emerged once again. Yuan was terrified, bowing over and over again and requesting forgiveness for his misdeed, and then departing.

Anon., Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 後2.266 (Tale 483):

泉有豬龍

眉州青神縣道側有小佛堂,俗謂豬母佛。蘇東坡問之土人,曰:「百年前有牝豬伏於此,化為泉,有二鯉魚在泉中,蓋豬龍也。人請牝豬為母,而立佛堂其上,故以名之。」泉出石上,深不及二尺,大旱不竭,而鯉莫有見者。一日東坡以其事告妻兄王愿,愿疑之妄誕,不平其疑,與愿俱至井禱之泉上曰:「予若不妄言,魚當復見。」已而二鯉復出,愿大驚,再拜謝罪而去。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).

A Snake Steals Wine And Drinks 蛇竊酒飲

Zhou Bixian was supervisor of the Panfeng wine store in Wuxi County, Changzhou. He used fragrant medicinal material to produce his yeast, bringing forth a dense fragrant cloud. The flavour of his wine was pure and clear, and it was produced in top, middle and lower qualities. When distilling the wine, he made offerings to deities, slaughtering a sheep and a pig, carrying out the rite of the three offerings in his official robes, and when this was complete sending the wine out to all levels of officials at the court. One day, at the autumn offering, the storehouse clerk came reporting that there were holes in the clay of the highest grade wine flasks. When he was taken to see, several hundred flasks were indeed quite empty. The clerks thought it strange that those chosen and cleaned as offerings to the spirits had not been affected, and nobody knew the cause of it all. A month later, laughing voices were suddenly heard in the wine store, and when they peeped in they saw a crowd of children sucking from the mouths of the wine jars; when the doors were opened they all vanished into the earth. He hastily ordered that the floor be excavated, and at a depth of three chi (about 1m), they found a huge serpent lying drunk, with several dozen smaller snakes wound around beside it, and they realized that those spoiling the wine were snakes. His heart weighed down with doubt and bewilderment, gloomy and without joy, [lacuna] within two months he had resigned and returned to his home region.

Anon., Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 後2.258 (Tale 469):

蛇竊酒飲

周必先監無常州錫縣潘封酒庫,用香藥料造麯,香氣氤氳,酒味清洌,有上中下三等。酒熟祭神,刺羊刺豕,庫官展裹行三獻之禮,事畢分送朝官監司太守以下。一日秋祭,庫吏走報,謂上等酒瓶泥皆有孔,取而視之,則數百瓶皆空空如也。官吏以為怪,擇其潔者供祀神,不之顧,亦莫知所自也。越一月,忽聞酒庫有笑語聲,潛視之,則有羣小兒口吸瓶上,開門則失入地矣。急命掘地,深三尺,有巨蛇醉卧,數十小蛇旋繞其旁,始知壞酒者此蛇也。其心疑怪,鬱鬱不樂, [ ] 踰兩月以事罷歸。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).

 

A Rat Turns A Spinning Wheel 鼠運緯車

The family of Constable Wu Guinian of Jintian often saw a person wearing a kerchief and a Huai robe, sometimes sitting beneath the moon, sometimes seated before the flowers, sometimes reclining by the pond, sometimes sitting on the building, changing and never looking quite the same. One day it was leaning against the gate with its hand, and Constable Wu said: “This is a household spirit; please return to the ancestral hall.” It then vanished. They also had a spinning wheel, which when night came could spin of its own accord, and this continued for several nights running. One evening, Wu covered his lamp with a pail and sat down next to it. He heard something descend the stairs, uncovering the matter step by step. Before long the spinning wheel began to spin once more, so he quickly removed the pail, leaving the lamp shining brightly, and the strange thing without time to change its shape. He saw a large rat, the size of a small pig, turning the wheel with its tail. He later treated it according to the Buddhist law, at which the demon vanished.

Anon., Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 後2.257 (Tale 467):

鼠運緯車

金田吳尉龜年,其家常見有一人淮巾袍帶,或坐月下,或坐花前,或坐池畔,或坐樓上,變見不一。一日以手柱門上,吳尉曰:「此家神也,請歸祠堂。」遂不見。又有一緯車,遇夜自能運轉,如此已數夕矣。一夕,吳以燈覆桶下,坐其旁,聞一物自樓梯下,步步分曉。須臾其緯車復運轉,急去桶,燈明,其怪物不及變形。乃見一大鼠如小豬兒狀,以尾拽其車。後以(此處原多一「其」字,據明刻本刪。)法治之,其怪乃絕。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).

Human Face, Pig Body 人面豬形

[257] In the Zhiyuan era, the gengchen year (1280), a sow in the household of Yang Liusi, to the east of Longquan County in Chuzhou, gave birth to a litter of seven. One of them had a pig’s body and a human face, eyes like those of a phoenix, a long and curved lower jaw, its mouth and nose leaving it unable to suckle milk. This form was terrifying, so after a day it was shot dead.

Anon., Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 後2.256-57 (Tale 465):

人面豬形

[257] 至元庚辰,處州龍泉縣東楊六四家豬母生七子,其一豬身人面,眼相如鳳,下頷長而彎腫,其口鼻不能食乳,怪狀可畏,踰日而斃。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).

A Sow Bears A Baby 豬母生孩

The Li family of Yanluo had nothing else but the raising of sows, which they did every few years, making a reasonable profit, and used this in order to arrange their marriages. One year it happened that their sow gave birth to two piglets, one of which was pig-shaped but had human feet, so people thought it a marvel. They kept it for a day, but then a religious came and said “This is not auspicious.” They then killed it. The sow died, too, and their household went into decline. People of Jiangmin specialize in raising pigs on polished rice; they are wasters of the five grains, and this should be taken as a warning.

Anon., Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 後2.256 (Tale 464):

豬母生孩

嚴㴖季家無以給,每畜豬母,數年以來,獲利不少,至於娶妻由是乎辦。忽一年,豬生兩子,一子豬形人腳,人以為異。留一日,忽道人來曰:「此不祥也。」遂斃之。豬母亦死,其家衰替。江閩人家專以白米飼豬,耗散五穀者,亦可以為戒。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).

A Fox Called Duke of the Spirits 狐稱鬼公

In Xixiang, Pucheng County, there was a powerful spirit, proved effective in many affairs, that called itself Duke of the Spirits; after several decades, near and far all strove to approach it. It happened that one Wan Tu, who tended pigs for a living, stretched a small net across a mountain path and a fox fell into this. It suddenly spoke with a human voice, saying: “I am the Spirit Duke of Xixiang; I hope [you] will spare my life, for which there will be a generous reward.” Tu then released and turned it free. The next night, at lamp-lighting time, two hens and a great many guanhui notes were tossed into his compound. Before many days had passed, he again fell into the hands of a human forester, and once more spoke in supplication: “I was once caught by Wan Tu, and he, having released me, has been thanked most generously. If I am returned alive your reward will be rich.” The man having no trust in this, he ‘placed him on the field of death’. Several days later, a troupe of foxes surrounded [the forester’s] house seeking and searching, soon after, a single fox torched the dwelling and departed.

Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志, 2.249:

狐稱鬼公

浦城縣西鄉有神通靈,事多驗,自稱鬼公,至數十年,遠近爭趨之。忽有萬屠以敦豬為業,肩持小網過一山抝,有狐墮其中。俄為人言曰:「我乃西鄉鬼公,冀全性命,當厚為報。」屠遂放逸。次夜燈時,以兩雞及官會五百千拋入其家。不踰數日,又入虞人之手,復哀告曰:「我昔為萬屠所得,彼既放我,已有厚謝。我若復活,當重報汝。」人不之信,置之死地。後數日,羣狐繞屋尋索,曾不移時,有一狐火焚其屋而去。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).

A Spirit Treats A Bone In The Throat 神醫骨鯁

Wang Youliang of Poyang, while eating a spicy pig’s trotter, accidentally swallowed a finger-sized bone which stuck in his throat and for several days could not be gulped down. Despite spitting and salivating being painful, he could take a little drink and soup, but his family were extremely worried about him. At dusk, when he was beginning to doze, he saw a scarlet-robed figure approach and tell him: “It is said you suffer from a bone. I have medicine, which is simply the finest southern pengsha.”[1] Awaking, he requested a small piece, held it in his mouth until it dissolved, and then on eating, was able to swallow freely as before. This can be seen as an example of spirits granting their secrets in the aid of others.

Anon., Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 後2.226 (Tale 403):

神醫骨鯁

鄱陽汪友良因食辣蹄,誤吞骨如指大,鯁於喉間,累日不下,雖咳唾亦痛,但略通湯飲,家人絕憂之。於昏睡次,睹一朱衣來告曰:「聞汝苦骨,吾有一藥,唯南鵬砂最妙。」覺而索砂一小塊,淨洗含化,纔食頃,脫然如失。此殆神明陰授以方濟人云。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).

[1] Pengsha 鵬砂 refers to borax, or sodium tetraborate.