Chen Su 陳素

In the first year of the Jin Shengping era (357 CE), the family of Chen Su, of Shan County, were wealthy. After a decade of marriage to his wife, he still lacked a son, so wished to take a concubine. His wife prayed to the ancestral hall’s deities and suddenly became pregnant. The same happened to the wife of their neighbour, a commoner. She therefore bribed the neighbour’s wife, saying: “If I give birth to a boy, that would be the will of heaven. If it is a girl, and yours is a boy, we should swap.” This was quickly agreed between them. The neighbour’s wife had a boy, and three days later Su’s wife bore a daughter. The exchange was quickly made. Su was absolutely delighted with his son. They had raised the child for thirteen years when, during prayers, an elderly housemaid who often saw spirits spoke up and said: “I see the gentleman’s ancestors; they’re coming to the gate and then stopping. But I also see a crowd of commoners who have come and seated themselves to eat our offerings.” The father was extremely alarmed and amazed, and then welcomed the spirits as they arrived. He prayed that they might become temporarily visible, and they told him they were all relatives. Su then went inside and questioned his wife. Terrified, she told him about the swap. The boy was returned to his original family, and their daughter taken back.

From Youminglu.

Li Fang 李昉, et al., Taiping guangji 太平廣記 (Extensive Gleanings from the Era of Great Harmony), 10 vols (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1961), vii, 319.2527:

陳素

晉昇平元年。剡縣陳素家富。娶婦十年無兒。夫欲娶妾。婦禱祠神明。突然有身。鄰家小人婦亦同有。因貨鄰婦云。我生若男。天願也。若是女。汝是男者。當交易之。便共將許。鄰人生男。此婦後三日生女。便交取之。素忻喜。養至十三。當祠祀。家有老婢。素見鬼。云。見府君家先人。來到門首便住。但見一羣小人。來座所食噉此祭。父甚疑怪。便迎見鬼人至。祠時轉令看。言語皆同。素便入問婦。婦懼。且說言此事。還男本家。喚女歸。出幽明錄

Huan Hui 桓回

Huan Hui was from Jijiu in Bingzhou, and during the third year of Liu Cong’s Jianyuan era (316 CE?), he encountered an old man on the road. Questioned, he said: “There is a musician called Cheng Ping. What is his occupation now? He and I are old friends and I’d like to return to our philosophical discussions, examining the filial and the virtuous. If the gentleman should see him please pass on this information.” Hui asked his name, to which he said: “I am Ma Zixuan of Wu Prefecture.” On finishing speaking he vanished. When Hui saw Ping, he told him all of this. Ping sighed, and said: “In the past there was such a person, but he died almost fifty years ago.” When the Gentleman of the Inner Court Xun Yanshu heard this, he composed a prayer and ordered Ping to lay out wine and food, and to perform prayers on the road.

From Yiyuan.

Li Fang 李昉, et al., Taiping guangji 太平廣記 (Extensive Gleanings from the Era of Great Harmony), 10 vols (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1961), vii, 318.2515:

桓回

并州祭酒桓回。以劉聰建元三年。於途遇一老父。問之云。有〈有原作是。據明鈔本改。〉樂工成憑。今何職。我與其人有舊。為致清談。得察孝廉。君若相見。令知消息。回問姓字。曰。我吳郡麻子軒也。言畢而失。回見憑。具宣其意。憑歎曰。昔有此人。計去世近五十年。中郎荀彥舒聞之。為造祝文。令憑設酒飯。祀於通衢之上。出異苑

Zhao Bolun 趙伯倫

Zhao Bolun, from Moling, once went to Xiangyang. The boatman made pigs and hogs the subject of his prayers, but when it came to making offerings, he gave only the shoulder of a single suckling pig. In a dream that night, Lun and others saw an old man and elderly woman, with white and grey hair, dressed in common clothes and bearing oars, who were very angry about this. When they set out at dawn, they were repeatedly pushed onto the sand and dashed against rocks; no human strength could stop this. They therefore prepared a generous selection of food offerings, after which they immediately caught the flowing current.

From You [2515] minglu.

Li Fang 李昉, et al., Taiping guangji 太平廣記 (Extensive Gleanings from the Era of Great Harmony), 10 vols (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1961), vii, 318.2514-15:

趙伯倫

秣陵人趙伯倫。曾往襄陽。船人以猪豕為禱。及祭。但㹠肩而已。爾夕。倫等夢見一翁一姥。鬢首蒼素。皆著布衣。手持橈檝。怒之。明發。輒觸沙衝石。皆非人力所禁。更施厚饌。即獲流通。出幽 [2515] 明錄

Wang Bi 王弼

Wang Bi[1] repeatedly mocked Zheng Xuan’s[2] Confucianism, saying: “That old codger didn’t have a clue.” It happened that, at midnight, he suddenly heard the sound of clogs outside his pavilion. After a short time someone entered and introduced himself as Zheng Xuan, reproving him: “The gentleman is only young; how can you take the strained interpretation of a few sentences so lightly as to concoct such a rash and preposterous slandering of Laozi?” His countenance coloured deeply by anger, after finishing speaking he withdrew. Bi resented this greatly, but not long after encountered a pestilence and died.

Li Fang 李昉, et al., Taiping guangji 太平廣記 (Extensive Gleanings from the Era of Great Harmony), 10 vols (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1961), vii, 317.2512:

王弼

王弼注易。輒笑鄭玄為儒。云。老奴無意。於時夜分。忽聞外閣有著屐聲。須臾便進。自云鄭玄。責之曰。君年少。何以輕穿鑿文句。而妄譏詆老子也。極有忿色。言竟便退。弼惡之。後遇癘而卒。

[1] Wang Bi 王弼 (226-49 CE, courtesy name Fusi 輔嗣), a philosopher counted among the founders of the Xuanxue 玄學 School of Neo-Daoist thought.

[2] Zheng Xuan 鄭玄 (127-200 CE, courtesy name Kangchen 康成), an Eastern Han scholar of the Confucian Classics.

Zhang Yi 張遺

The Prefectural Chief of Guiyang Zhang Yi[1] was from Jiangxia. His courtesy name was Shugao, and he resided in Yanling. Amid his fields there was a great tree, more than ten spans around, that shaded six mu (around 40 acres). Its branches and leaves were luxuriant, and no millet would grow beneath them. He sent a passing traveller to fell it, but after several swings of the axe the tree began to bleed profusely. The traveller was terrified, and returned to tell Shugao. Shugao told him, furiously: “Old trees sweat; what’s so strange about that?” He therefore went in person and hacked at it. A large amount of blood poured out. Shugao hacked at it again, and again, and opened up a hollow space within. A white-haired old man, four or five chi tall (1.3-1.6m), emerged suddenly and stepped towards Shugao. Shugao greeted him with a swing of his blade, and killed him. Four or five old men emerged in the same way, falling to the ground in fear and shock. Shugao carried on as before, quite unruffled. The various people looked on at these beings. Like people but not human, like beasts but not animals, could they be what is known as wood or stone devils, or Kui sprites? In the year he felled the tree, Shu- [2841] -gao was appointed Censor to the Ministry of Works and Governor of Yanzhou.

From Fayuanzhulin. [2]

Li Fang 李昉, et al., Taiping guangji 太平廣記 (Extensive Gleanings from the Era of Great Harmony), 10 vols (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1961), viii, 359.2840-41:

張遺〈搜神記遺作遼。〉

桂陽太守江夏張遺。字叔高。居𨻳〈居上原有隱字。據明鈔本刪。𨻳字原闕。據法苑珠林三一補。〉陵。田中有大樹。十圍餘。蓋六畝。枝葉扶疏。蟠地不生谷草。遣客斫之。斧數下。樹大血出。客驚怖。歸白叔高。叔高怒曰。老樹汗出。此等何怪。因自斫之。血大流出。叔高更斫之。又有一空處。白頭老翁長四五尺。突出趁〈趁原作稱。據法苑珠林三一改。〉叔高。叔高以刀迎斫。殺之。四五老翁並出。左右皆驚怖伏地。叔高神慮恬然如舊。諸人徐視之。似人非人。似獸非獸。此所謂木石之怪。夔魍魎者乎。其伐樹年中。叔 [2841] 高辟司空御史兗州刺史。出法苑珠林。法苑珠林四二作出搜神記

[1] An editor’s note here states that the story is titled (and the character likewise named) Zhang Liao 張遼 in the Soushenji 搜神記.

[2] An editor’s note here states that the Fayuanzhulin reports that the story is taken from the Soushenji 搜神記.

Zhu Yanshou 朱延壽

In his latter years, the governor of Shouzhou Zhu Yanshou was once bathing in his chamber when he saw two people outside his window. Both had dark faces, vermillion hair and black robes, and grasped books in their hands. One of them said: “I have accepted an order [2797] to come and fetch him.” Another said: “I too have accepted an order to come and fetch him.” One said: “I received the order first.” Yanshou then called out to those attending him. The pair immediately vanished. When his attendants arrived, they all said there had not been anyone there at all. Before long, he was dead.

From Jishenlu.

Li Fang 李昉, et al., Taiping guangji 太平廣記 (Extensive Gleanings from the Era of Great Harmony), 10 vols (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1961), viii, 353.2796-97:

朱延壽

壽州刺史朱延壽。末年。浴於室中。窺見窗外有二人。皆青面朱髮青衣。手執文書。一人曰。我受命 [2797] 來取。一人曰。我亦受命來取。一人又曰。我受命在前。延壽因呼侍者。二人即滅。侍者至。問外有何人。皆云無人。俄而被殺。出稽神錄

Ghost Burial鬼葬

Forty li west of Xupu County in Chenzhou is Bury-Ghost Mountain. The Huangmin yuanchuanji[1] states that there is a coffin among the crags, which, visible at some distance, could be more than ten zhang (i.e., 33m) in length. It is known as the ruin of a ghostly burial. The venerable elders tell of how ghosts built the coffin, and for seven days the daylight grew dim. All they could hear was the sounds of hatchets and chisels. Human households had not noticed that they had lost their blades and axes, but when on the seventh day the skies cleared, the missing things all returned to their owners. The chisels and axes were all greasy and stank of raw meat. When they looked at it, the coffin lay with solemn dignity along the side of the ridge.

From Qiawenji

Li Fang 李昉, et al., Taiping guangji 太平廣記 (Extensive Gleanings from the Era of Great Harmony), 10 vols (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1961), viii 351.2782:

鬼葬

辰州漵浦縣西四十里。有鬼葬山。黃閔沅川記云。其中巖有棺木。遙望可長十餘丈。謂鬼葬之墟。故老云。鬼造此棺。七日晝昏。唯聞斧鑿聲。人家不覺失器物刀斧。七日霽。所失之物。悉還其主。鐺斧皆有肥膩腥臊。見此棺儼然。橫據岸畔。出洽聞記

[1] I haven’t yet identified this text.

Fang Qianli 房千里

Outside the south gate of Chunzhou stood a residence for nether world officials. When Fang Qianli was dismissed from office he sought treatment in that prefecture, and the governor assigned him to the residence. In the eastern wing there was an inner chamber. A servant was once snoozing there, when suddenly a red-robed man, of very imposing build, came straight up before him. The servant fled in panic, and informed Qianli. After one or two nights, this happened again. Qianli did not believe him, but no longer sent him to the room. After several months had passed, he moved to the Brook Pavilion. He again entrusted the eastern chamber to clerks for their rest. In broad daylight, one of them saw a boy, draped in an ancient gauzy robe and hurrying towards him. It said: “You will not stay here long.” The clerk fled the house in panic. All of this was related to the subordinate officials. An elderly general, Lu Jianzong, said: “During the Yuanhe era (806-20 CE), they punished Master Li. His travels having been brought to an end he was banished to this prefecture, and instructed to commit suicide right here.” The clerk’s report did not omit any of this.

From Touhuangzalu.

Li Fang 李昉, et al., Taiping guangji 太平廣記 (Extensive Gleanings from the Era of Great Harmony), 10 vols (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1961), viii, 351.2780

房千里

春州南門外有仙署館。館中有盧公亭。房千里貶官。尋醫于斯(斯原作新。據明鈔本改。)州。太守館之於是。東廂有內室。僕夫假寐。忽有朱衣人。甚魁偉。直來其前。僕輩驚走。告千里。既一二夕。又然。千里不信。然不復置于室內。後累月。徒居溪亭。復有假掾吏寄與東室。晝日。見一男子披紗裳。屣履而來。曰。若無久駐此。掾驚出戶。俱以狀白於僚吏。有老牙門將陸建宗曰。元和中。誅李師道。其從事陸行儉流于是州。賜死於是。掾所白之狀。(狀原作將。據明抄本改。)果省不謬。出投荒雜錄

On Foxes 說狐

When foxes reach fifty years of age, they can transform into adult women. At a hundred years they can be beautiful girls, and perform sorcery. Some become husbands and enjoy carnal relations with women. They have awareness of matters extending up to a thousand li away. They are skilled at wielding noxious influence and charms, and can perplex and mislead people, stealing away their wisdom. At a thousand years they can receive the direct blessings of heaven, as a divine fox.

From Xuanzhongji.

Li Fang 李昉, et al., Taiping guangji 太平廣記 (Extensive Gleanings from the Era of Great Harmony), 10 vols (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1961), ix, 447.3652:

說狐

狐五十歲。能變化為婦人。百歲為美女。為神巫。或為丈夫與女人交接。能知千里外事。善蠱魅。使人迷惑失智。千歲即與天通。為天狐。

出玄中記

A Fox-Dragon 狐龍

Beneath Lishan there was a white fox. It startled and bothered the people below the peak, but they were unable to get rid of it. One day during the Tang Ganfu era (874-80 CE), it suddenly took a bath in a hot spring. Before long, clouds arose and mists bubbled up, and a violent wind began to blow. It transformed into a white dragon, ascended the clouds and departed. For some time afterwards there was dark and gloom, and people frequently saw the white dragon soaring over the mountain’s flanks. This continued for three years. Then an old man appeared, approaching each night and weeping before the peak. After several days people waited for him and asked him why. The old man said: “My Fox-Dragon is dead. That is the reason.” They asked him why he called it a fox-dragon, and again why he wept. The old man said: “The fox-dragon was a fox and became a dragon. After three years it died. I am the fox-dragon’s son.” The people questioned him again, asking: “How can a fox turn into a dragon?” The old man replied: “This fox grew endowed with the vital energy of the west, its whiskers white in colour. It did not travel with the crowds, did not join with its vicinity. The fox was entrusted with the skirts of Lishan for more than a thousand years. Later, it happened to unite with a female dragon. The heavens were aware of this, and so decreed it become a dragon, and also that, like a human, it could leave the mortal plane and become a sage.” When he had finished speaking he vanished.

From Qishiji.

Li Fang 李昉, et al., Taiping guangji 太平廣記 (Extensive Gleanings from the Era of Great Harmony), 10 vols (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1961), x, 455.3718:

狐龍

驪山下有一白狐。驚撓山下人。不能去除。唐乾符中。忽一日突溫泉自浴。須臾之間。雲蒸霧湧。狂風大起。化一白龍。昇天而去。後或陰暗。往往有人見白龍飛騰山畔。如此三年。忽有一老父。每臨夜。即哭於山前。數日。人乃伺而問其故。老父曰。我狐龍死。故哭爾。人問之。何以名狐龍。老父又何哭也。老父曰。狐龍者。自狐而成龍。三年而死。我狐龍之子也。人又問曰。狐何能化為龍。老父曰。此狐也。稟西方之正氣而生。胡白色。不與衆遊。不與近處。狐託於驪山下千餘年。後偶合於雌龍。上天知之。遂命為龍。亦猶人間自凡而成聖耳。言訖而滅。

出奇事記