Pei Zhang’s Unhappy Wife 裴章薄妻

Pei Zhang was from Hedong; his father Zhou had once garrisoned Jingzhou. Their private monk, Tan Zhao, had made great achievements in the Way, and able to comprehend good and bad fortune. As a youth Zhang had profound respect for Tan Zhao, who said that his career and prestige would surpass that of his father. When Zhang reached the ‘capping age’ (i.e., adulthood, at around 20), his father married him to a daughter of the Li family. On passing the age of thirty, Zhang followed a posting to Taiyuan, leaving his wife in Luozhong, ‘passing the door but never entering’ (i.e., being too busy to visit), never taking her along with him. Lady Li felt herself to have been born under an unlucky star, often wearing coarse clothes and a mourning hairstyle, reading Buddhist texts and eating simple food. After a further decade, when his father transferred from Jingzhou to garrison Taiyuan, Tan Zhao followed him. Zhang therefore saw Zhao to renew their acquaintance, but Zhao was shocked and sighed for a long time, addressing him: “Fifty years ago this poor cleric often said Your Excellency would scale the heights; now you are quite weakened and exhausted. How has this happened?” Zhang told him of his unhappy wife. Zhao said: “The lady has complained to the Lord on High, and he punishes Your Excellency.” Ten days later, he cut his stomach open with a knife in the bathtub; his five organs fell to the ground, and he subsequently died.

Li Rong 李冗, Du yi zhi 獨異志 (Outstanding Fantastic Stories), 上1.13 (Tale 73):

裴章薄妻

河東裴章者,其父胄,曾鎮荊州。門僧曇照,道行甚高,能知休咎。章幼時為曇照所重,言其官班位望過於其父。章弱冠,父為娶李氏女。乃三十年餘,章從職太原,棄其妻於洛中,過門不入,別有所挈。李氏自感其薄命,常褐衣髽髺,讀佛書,蔬食。又十年,嚴經自荊州移鎮太原,曇照隨之。章因見照敍舊,照驚噫久之,謂之曰:「貧道五十年前常謂郎君必貴,今削盡,何也?」章自以薄妻之事啟之。照曰:「夫人生魂訴上帝,以罪處君。」後旬日,為其下以刀劃腹於浴斛,五臟墮地,遂死。

Li Rong 李冗, Du yi zhi, 獨異志 (Outstanding Fantastic Stories) in Du yi zhi, Xuanshi Zhi 獨異志,宣室志 (Outstanding Fantastic Stories, Stories from the Chamber of Dissemination), edited by Zhang Yongqin 张永钦 and Hou Zhiming 侯志明 (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1983)

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Government Troops Harm The Populace 官軍殘民

During the Tang, Li You served as General of Huaixi, and in the twelfth year Yuanhe (817 CE) he returned to the country carrying funds. When Duke Pei defeated Wu Yuanji, some among the Han army stripped the clothes of women leaving their bodies entirely naked [9]. You had a new wife, née Jiang, who had reached her fifth month of pregnancy, but was seized by the rampaging troops, who sliced her belly with a blade, and Jiang stopped breathing and fell to the ground. You returned and saw this; her belly gaped more than a chi (c.30 cm), so he removed his jacket and wrapped her. His wife came to soon after, receiving some divine medicine and recovering. After a full ten months she gave birth to a son. The court returned You to serve the realm with honour, and awarded a post to his son. The son was named Xingxiu (‘Cultivating Conduct’), and served as military governor for Nanhai at an age a little over thirty; resigning and returning, he died on the road.

Li Rong 李冗, Du yi zhi, 獨異志 (Outstanding Fantastic Stories), 上1.8-9 (Tale 62):

官軍殘民

唐李祐為淮西將,元和十二年送款歸國。裴公破吴元濟,入其城,漢軍有剝婦人衣至裸體 [9] 者。祐有新婦姜氏,懷姙五月矣,為亂卒所刼,以刀劃其腹,姜氏氣絕踣地。祐歸見之,腹開尺餘,因脱衣襦裹之。婦一夕復蘇,傳以神藥而平。滿十月而產一男。朝廷以祐歸國功,授一子官。子曰行修,年三十餘,為南海節度,罷歸,卒於道。

This story is also found in Taiping Guangji at juan 29, entitled ‘Li You’s Wife’.

此條又見《廣記》卷二一九,題為《李祐婦》。

Li Rong 李冗, Du yi zhi, 獨異志 (Outstanding Fantastic Stories) in Du yi zhi, Xuanshi Zhi 獨異志,宣室志 (Outstanding Fantastic Stories, Stories from the Chamber of Dissemination), edited by Zhang Yongqin 张永钦 and Hou Zhiming 侯志明 (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1983)

A Rustic Cuts Bamboo 野人破竹

Rustic Huang lived on Luofushan in Huizhou. In recent years someone lost their way in the hills, and saw a small thatched cottage where an elderly villager in leggings and headscarf was wielding a knife, slicing bamboo for weaving; he had no idea that this was an immortal. The lost traveller announced that he was famished. It was then the tenth month, in winter, and the rustic picked plums for him to eat. He ate several, and their flavour was sweet and fragrant, but not like that of a plum. On returning home he found he could refrain from eating grain without feeling hunger. Moreover, he had been sent back with some lengths of weaving bamboo, and on arriving and opening these, they were seven or eight zhang (i.e., 20-25m) in length, without joins. He then realized that the spirit he had encountered was Rustic Huang.

Anon., Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 後1.136 (Tale 240):

野人破竹

黃野人,在惠州羅浮山中。近年有人入山失路,但見一小茅廬,一村翁裹布巾,操刀破竹篾,不知其為仙人也。失路者告飢,時冬十月,野人摘梅子與之喫。喫數枚,其味甘香,又不似梅子。歸家能辟穀不飢。又以竹篾數條遺之,歸開其篾,長七八丈而無節。方知所遇即仙人黃野人也。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).

The Lord of Profound Heaven Manifests 玄帝現像

Wang Daozhi was known as Lay Scholar Free of Knowledge, and lived to the west of Anfu. In his household were collected eighteen of the very finest statues of arhats, and every month he had monks perform rites and make offerings to them. They had a plum blossom [129] that fruited in its porcelain vase, and people thought this an auspicious sign. One day, his family fell ill, and he dreamed that two scrolls were offered before the arhats, saying: “You should go north in person, and ask the Profound Emperor to provide healing.” The following day, a monk came to the gate and asked: “Why do you not attend the immortal?” He replied: “I have no image.” The monk said: “You should invite an artist.” An image of the emperor then appeared on the table, face like a full moon, black robes and golden armour, feet treading on turtles and serpents, five generals to his right and left, holding knives, grasping banners held erect and surrounded by streamers. Known as the Five Dragons, their might and grandeur was far beyond that which one might usually see. When the image was finished it was traced by hand and then vanished. The illness was then cured, and his household treasured the icon.

Anon., Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 後1.128-29 (Tale 223):

玄帝現像

王道之,號無識居士,住安福之西。其家蓄十八羅漢像最精妙,月月命僧禮而供之。有梅花 [129] 結實於甆瓶,人以為瑞。一日,其家病作,羅漢前兩軸獻夢云: 「待自去北方,請玄帝來救治。」明日,一僧登門曰:「如何不奉真聖?」答曰:「無像。」僧曰:「可邀畫匠(「匠」原作「像」,據明刻本、明抄本改。)來。」就桌上現(此處原衍「像」字,據明刻本、明抄本刪。)出帝像,面如滿月,皁袍金甲,足踏龜蛇,左右五將,持刀執纛樹幡,號五龍,猛烈雄偉,非尋常所有者。描訖,像隨手而沒。後病癒,其家寶藏之。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).

A Well Spirit Shows Itself 井神現身

Wu Zhan lived near Jingxi, where there was a particularly clear and limpid spring on which the population relied. Zhan protected it with a bamboo fence, to keep out the dirt. One day, Wu was by the side of the spring when he caught a white snail and put it in an earthen jar. Whenever he came in from outside, he found food and drink already prepared in his kitchen, and he was shocked and astonished. One day he managed to peep in, and saw a woman emerge from the shell and take up a cooking knife. Wu hurried in towards her. She was unable to return to her shell, and told him truthfully: “I am a spring spirit. Because the gentleman respected and protected my source, and because it is known that the gentleman is a widower, I was commanded to prepare food for the gentleman. If the gentleman eats my food, he will attain the Way.” When her speech was finished she vanished.

Anon., Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 後2.219 (Tale 388):

井神現身

吳湛居臨荊溪,有一泉極清澈,衆人賴之,湛為竹籬遮護,不令穢入。一日,吳於泉側得一白螺,歸置之甕中,每自外歸,則廚中飲食已辦,心大驚異。一日竊窺,乃一女子自螺中而出,手自操刀。吳急趨之,女子大窘,不容歸殼,實告吳曰:「吾乃泉神,以君敬護泉源,且知君鰥居,命〔吾〕(據明刻本補。)為君操饌。君食吾饌,當得道矣。」言訖不見。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).

A Snake in the Skin 皮中有蛇

‘Hua Tuo’s Unofficial Biography’ relates: There was a woman from Langya who developed a sore on her right thigh, which tickled but didn’t hurt, recovering but then growing further. Tuo said: “One ought to obtain a dog the colour of rice husk and drag it with horses, exchanging when wearied, for fifty li; decapitate it and smear the blood on the itchy spot, which will then [improve].” This advice was followed. Immediately a snake was seen moving in her skin; placing an iron needle along its length they drew it out – it was perhaps three feet long – and seven days later she had quite recovered.

Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志, 2.228 (Tale 408):

皮中有蛇

《華佗別傳》曰:琅琊有女子,右股上有瘡,癢而不痛,愈而復作。佗曰:「當得稻穅色犬擊馬,頓走出五十里,斷頭取血,塗癢處方可。」乃從之。須臾有蛇在皮中動,以鐵針橫〔貫〕據明刻本補。引出,長三尺許,七日頓愈。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).

A much earlier version is found in the Soushenji (translated by Kenneth J. Dewoskin and J.I. Crump, Jr.):

Hua T’o Cures an Ulcer with a Dog and Two Horses (3,69)

Hua T’o (T. Yuan-hua) of the state of P’ei was also known as Hua Fu. Liu Hsün of Lang-ya, Grand Protector of Ho-nei, had a daughter who was about twenty. Her feet troubled her, and on the inside of her left thigh she had tumor [sic] that, though it did not pain her, itched. The tumor would be inactive for several weeks and then would suddenly break out. This went on for seven or eight years until finally Lu Hsün received T’o and asked him to examine her.

“This is easily cured,” said Hua T’o. “Prepare a brown dog, the color of rice chaff, and have two sound horses procured.” Hua T’o then tied a rope to the dog’s neck, and the horse was made to drag the dog at a gallop. When the first horse was exhausted he was exchanged for the other until at least thirty li had been covered. By then the dog could no longer walk, so a man was detailed to drag it until a total of fifty li had been traveled.

The girl was then drugged. When she was comfortable and unconscious, the dog’s belly, at a place near the hind leg, was opened with a great knife. This wound was placed two or three inches from the site of the girl’s ulcer, and a serpentine creature was observed coming forth from it. An iron awl was thrust through the serpent’s head parallel to the girl’s leg. The thing wriggled beneath the girl’s skin for some time but eventually grew still and was drawn out.

The creature was about three feet long and was clearly a snake. However, though it had eye sockets, it had no eyeballs and its scales faced forward.

Salve was later spread on the ulcer, and the girl was cured in seven days.[1]

Another, abbreviated, version of this is found in Tale 323 in the Tang-era collection Du Yi Zhi 獨異志 (Outstanding Fantastic Stories), collated by Li Rong 李冗:

In the realm of Wei there was a woman who was extremely beautiful, but had remained unmarried for a long time, because she often suffered a sore on her right knee that wept pus without cease. Encountering Hua Tuo on the road, her father questioned him about it. Tuo said: “Have someone ride a horse, pulling along a chestnut-coloured dog, and gallop for thirty li. Return, sever and hang up the dog’s right foot.” Presently, a red snake emerged from the sore and [66] entered the dog’s paw. Her illness was then cured.[2]

This version was picked up and included in the tenth-century compilation Taiping guangji 太平廣記 (Extensive Gleanings from the Era of Great Harmony), where it is combined with another story of Hua Tuo’s expertise:

Hua Tuo 華佗

Hua Tuo of Wei was a skilled physician. Once, the prefectural commander became very ill. Tuo encountered him, and the commander ordered him to perform a diagnosis and treatment, but Tuo withdrew, addressing his son: “The cause of the gentleman’s illness is unusual. There is an accumulation of blood in the chest. He should be made very angry, so that it can be spat out. Then he will be able to expel the malady. Otherwise there is no chance for life. His son can speak in full about his father’s entire life’s transgressions. I withdraw and pass the responsibility to you.” The son said: “If a cure can be effected, what should not be said?” Then he detailed all his father’s misdeeds and mistakes, telling all to Tuo. Tuo therefore composed and left a letter scolding the man. The father grew extremely angry, dispatching clerks to arrest Tuo, but Tuo did not come back. He then vomited more than a sheng (about a litre) of black blood. His illness was then cured. Moreover, there was a woman who was extremely beautiful, but had remained unmarried for a long time, because she often suffered a sore on her right knee that wept pus without cease. Encountering Hua Tuo on the road, her father questioned him about it. Tuo said: “Have someone ride a horse, pulling along a chestnut-coloured dog, and galloping for thirty li. Return, cook and sever the dog’s right foot, then attach it to the sore.” Presently, a red snake emerged from the sore and [66] entered the dog’s paw. Her illness was then cured.[3]

[1] Gan Bao, Kenneth J. Dewoskin and J.I. Crump, Jr. (trans), In Search of the Supernatural: The Written Record (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press), p.41. Soushenji 3.41:

華陀

沛國華陀,字元化,一名旉。瑯邪劉勳為河內太守,有女年幾二十,苦脚左膝裏有瘡,癢而不痛。瘡愈,數十日復發。如此七八年。迎佗使視。佗曰:「是易治之。」當得稻糠黃色犬一頭,好馬二匹,以繩繫犬頸,使走馬牽犬,馬極輒易。計馬走三十餘里,犬不能行。復令步人拖曳,計向五十里。乃以藥飲女,女卽安卧,不知人。因取大刀,斷犬腹近後脚之前。以所斷之處向瘡口,令二三寸停之。須臾,有若蛇者從瘡中出,便以鐵椎橫貫蛇頭。蛇在皮中動摇良久,須臾不動,乃牽出,長三尺許,純是蛇,但有眼處,而無瞳子,又逆鱗耳。以膏散著瘡中,七日愈。

[2] Li Rong 李冗, Du yi zhi, 獨異志 (Outstanding Fantastic Stories) in Du yi zhi, Xuanshi Zhi 獨異志,宣室志 (Outstanding Fantastic Stories, Stories from the Chamber of Dissemination), edited by Zhang Yongqin 张永钦 and Hou Zhiming 侯志明 (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1983), pp. 65-66:

魏國有女子,極美麗,踰時不嫁,以右膝上常患一瘡,膿水不絕。遇華陀過,其父問之。陀曰:「使人乘馬,牽一栗色犬,走三十里。歸而截犬右足挂之。」俄頃,一赤蛇從瘡出而 [66] 入犬足,其疾遂愈。

[3] Li Fang 李昉, et al., Taiping guangji 太平廣記 (Extensive Gleanings from the Era of Great Harmony), 10 vols (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1961), 218.1664-65:

魏華佗善醫。嘗有郡守病甚。佗過之。郡守令佗診候。佗退。謂其子曰。使君病有異於常。積瘀血在腹中。當極怒嘔血。卽能去疾。不爾無生矣。子能盡言家君平昔之愆。吾疏而責之。其子曰。若獲愈。何謂不言。於是具以父從來所為乖誤者。盡示佗。佗留書責罵之。父大怒。發吏捕佗。佗不至。遂嘔黑血升餘。其疾乃平。又有女子極美麗。過時不嫁。以右膝上常患一瘡。膿水不絕。華陀過。其父問之。陀曰。使人乘馬。牽一栗色狗走三十里。歸而熱截右足。挂瘡上。俄有一赤蛇從瘡出。而入犬足中。其疾遂平。出獨異志

Repay Injustice, Settle A Dispute 冤報解和

[127] There was once a merchant who went to Shu (Sichuan), sharing a boat with a rich trader. One day, the boat was moored on the riverbank and all the servants went ashore, leaving the merchant alone. He wanted to steal the other’s property and seeing that the rich trader was washing his hands to one side of the deck, he went and shoved him into the river. The wealthy trader leaped back up out of the water, grasping the rail in his hands, so the other took up a knife and chopped away all five fingers; the trader sank into the river and drowned. Snatching up all of his goods, the merchant returned with great wealth.

One day, he dreamed that the wealthy trader came to his neighbour’s house, and he awoke with a start. When he sent people to check this, a baby boy had indeed been born, and he ordered that it be nurtured and raised, providing money for the child’s support. When the child was five or six, he adopted it into his own family, nurturing it personally; every day he indulged all the boy’s wishes. On reaching the age of capping (20 sui), the boy suddenly became addicted to drink and gambling, stopping at nothing in pursuit of pleasure and desire, losing uncountable piles of tens of thousands every day, and continuing like this for several years.

One day he had lost a great deal, but in the evening wanted still more money. The head of the household told him: “You have already lost a lot; keep some for the future.” His son became very angry, taking a knife and hacking at him. The older man raised his hand to ward off the blade, and his five fingers fell to the ground. His retinue managed to seize the young man, and he pleaded for his life to be spared. The older man addressed him: “In a former life you were a wealthy trader. I travelled with you on the same boat but plotted to steal your property and killed you. Having discovered in a dream that you had been reincarnated, I nurtured and raised you from childhood until you became fully grown, paying for whatever you wanted; calculated altogether, this has now returned your property to you. Now that my five fingers have also been taken, this is enough to repay the debt, minus the one human life. If I used my wealth and handed you over to the authorities, having you executed would be easy. I fear that this process of retribution for unpunished wrongs might then go on endlessly, so I now release you, sending you off with whatever property you need to establish fields and household in some other faraway prefecture, resolving once and for all this need for revenge.” The young man thanked him and departed.

Anon., Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 前1.126-27 (Tale 221):

冤報解和

[127] 有一商人入蜀,與富商同舟。一日,艤舟江滸,從僕皆上岸,惟此商,欲圖其財,見富商在船旁盥手,遂推之於江,富商又躍起,手拏船舷,又為持刀斷其五指,遂墜江而死。席卷財物,歸成大富。一日,夢富商來其鄰家,驚覺。遣人視之,果生一男子,遂命育之,給以乳哺之資。年五六歲,收歸其家,撫之猶手,每日恣其所欲。及年冠,忽嗜飲賭博,無所不至,一從其意,日輸累萬亦不較,如是者數年。一日多敗,及晚猶欲索錢。主家語之曰:「今日已輸多了,尚有來日。」 其子忿怒,拔刃斫之,主家舉手捍禦,五指俱落,得左右人擒住,倖免不死。主語之曰:「汝前生為富商,我與同舟,圖汝財,害汝命,續夢汝託生,我撫育自少至長,恣汝所欲,總而計之,亦可以還汝財物矣。今又傷我五指,亦足以還,但所欠一命耳。以我財力置汝於官,殺之不難。又恐冤冤相報無已,今放汝去,更隨汝意財物,可遠去他郡,別置田宅,解釋冤讐。」其人感謝而去。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).