A Qingzhou Traveller 青州客

During the Later Liang (907-23 CE), a traveller from Qingzhou encountered a gale while crossing the sea. Blown to a very distant place, when he looked into the distance he could make out mountains and rivers and a walled city. A veteran sailor told him: “We have been seized by the wind. I have never been here before, but have heard that the realm of the spirits is in these parts. Could this be it?” After a little while, their boat reached land, so he climbed onto the shore and set off towards the settlement. The houses and residences, fields and plots showed no difference from those of the Middle Realm. Whenever he saw people he bowed to them, but none of those people seemed to notice him. When he reached the town walls, there was a custodian at the gates. When bowed to, he likewise failed to respond. He entered the town, and all of the buildings and people were very dark in colour. When he reached the royal palace, a great banquet was taking place, with several dozen of the monarch’s attendants waiting on the feast. Their robes, hats, utensils, musical instruments and furnishings were diverse, but all of Chinese styles. Ke therefore ascended the hall, and approached close to the king’s seat in order to catch a glimpse of him. Suddenly, however, the king fell ill. His retinue held him up and withdrew him from the room, urgently summoning a shaman to make an examination. When the shaman arrived, he declared: “Someone has arrived from a yang region. Their yang energy presses on the people, and this is the cause of the monarch’s illness. They came here inadvertently, without intending to haunt us. They should be sent away thankfully, with food, drink, carts and horses. This is appropriate.” They then supplied wine and a meal, laying out seats in another chamber. The shaman gathered the group of ministers, and all made prayers and offerings, and Ke ate accordingly. Shortly after, a coachman arrived driving horses. [2796] Ke then mounted a horse and returned, arriving at the shore and boarding the ship, the people of that realm never once having caught sight of him. They caught a favourable wind once more, and managed to return home. At that time He Dejian was military governor of Qingzhou, and was close to Weibo’s military governor Yang Shihou, so sent this Ke to serve Wei. He told Shihou his tale, and Fan Xuangu from Wei heard it in person and informed your servant.

From Jishenlu.

Li Fang 李昉, et al., Taiping guangji 太平廣記 (Extensive Gleanings from the Era of Great Harmony), 10 vols (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1961), viii, 353.2795-96:

青州客

朱梁時。青州有賈客泛海遇風。飄至一處。遠望有山川城郭。海師曰。自頃遭風者。未嘗至此。吾聞鬼國在是。得非此耶。頃之。舟至岸。因登岸。向城而去。其廬舍田畝。不殊中國。見人皆揖之。而人皆不見已。至城。有守門者。揖之。亦不應。入城。屋室人物甚殷。遂至王宮。正值大宴。君臣侍宴者數十。其衣冠器用絲竹陳設之類。多類中國。客因升殿。俯逼王坐以窺之。俄而王有疾。左右扶還。亟召巫者視之。巫至。有陽地人至此。陽氣逼人。故王病。其人偶來爾。無心為祟。以飲食車馬謝遣之。可矣。即具酒食。設座於別室。巫及其羣臣。皆來祀祝。客據按而食。俄有僕夫馭馬而至。 [2796] 客亦乘馬而歸。至岸登舟。國人竟不見己。復遇便風得歸。時賀德儉為青州節度。與魏博節度楊師厚有親。因遣此客使魏。其為師厚言之。魏人范宣古。親聞其事。為余言。出稽神錄

King Qian Manifests In A Dream 錢王現夢

Song Gaozong (r. 1127-62) was the ninth son of Huizong (r. 1100-26). While his mother, the Empress Wei, was pregnant, Huizong dreamed that the King of Wuyue Qian Chu came to call on him.[1] On waking, he marvelled at this. It was the second year Daguan (1108 CE). At Gaozong’s birth, a red light filled the palace chamber. In the second year Xuanhe (1120), he was given the title Prince of Kang. At the turn of the Jingkang era (1126-27), the prince was often sent to the Jin as a hostage and spent time among their troops. When the Jin Crown Prince and the Prince of Kang traded bowshots, the latter hit all three volleys, smashing their arrowheads and leaving them hanging together in bundles. The Jin prince was terrified, believing that he was a deity, and thinking silently to himself: “The Song crown prince has grown up [7] deep within the palace, accustomed to wealth and station, so horse riding cannot be his strong point. Now, such expert archery must mean that the southern court have selected a skilled warrior from amongst their clan to take the prince’s place as a hostage; he must be an impostor. Keeping him is of no benefit; he should be returned. Exchanging him and having the true crown prince come as a hostage would be better.” In this way Gaozong won his release.

Changing his clothes he ran helter-skelter down a side road, and when the strength in his legs eventually gave way to exhaustion, he took a nap between the steps of the Cuifujun Temple. In his dream he heard a spirit telling him “The Jin have sent soldiers here; you must leave quickly.” The Prince of Kang looked all around, unsure what to do, and the spirit spoke again: “There is a horse prepared and waiting at the gate; leave quickly, great prince; you must not be caught.” The Prince of Kang awoke from his dream to find a horse already by his side. Leaping atop his mount, the prince galloped away to the south, covering seven hundred li in a single day. When he came to cross the (Yellow) River, his horse would not advance, and when he looked down he realised that it was made of mud. He then understood how the spirits had helped him. Seeking a crossing, he arrived, extremely hungry and thirsty, at a small village, and received food from a very old woman. She invited him inside, and then went back out in front of the house. Just then a number of mounted soldiers arrived in pursuit, and asked her: “There is an official, dressed like us; has he passed this way or not?” The elderly woman considered these words awhile, thinking about the manner of the man she’d just fed, and replied: “It has been several days since he passed through.” His pursuers beat their riding crops against their saddles, exclaiming: “Alas! Alas!” They then turned back, giving up the chase.

When the old woman went back to him, she said: “I see that the official is no vagabond; could it be that you are a person of the imperial palace? Just now some pursuit riders came asking questions, but I have hoodwinked them and they turned back.” The Prince of Kang replied: “I am fleeing to the south, and have arrived here famished and thirsty. I am indebted to you, but faced with these questions in truth I dare not answer, but wish to keep my secret.” The old woman said: “May the Great Prince please be at ease.” After a little while, she prepared a meal and brought it, also taking out several hundred liang of silver and presenting it to him, explaining: “My son was Li Rushui, and he died as their captive. I wish the great prince to devote this to the service of the realm.” The Prince of Kang was therefore able to flee to Xiangzhou and issue a proclamation recruiting troops to rescue the princes.

He then ascended the Flying Immortal Pavilion within the prefectural garden, took up bow and arrow and, looking at its inscribed board, prayed: “If I hit that tablet, I will ‘pay heed to news from the capital’” (i.e., play a role in governing the realm). He fired three times and did indeed hit three times, and those around him were deeply moved and congratulated one another. He also spoke to the commanding officer: “In the night I dreamed that an emperor removed his imperial robes and gave them to me. I removed my former robes and dressed myself in his gifts; what omen does this carry?” After a little while, the city gates were sealed as the official attendant Qin Zaiji had arrived with an imperial decree hidden within a wax medicine ball. This ordered him to serve as commander-in-chief, and to issue forth with an army. Just as the prince set out from Xiangzhou, an envoy galloped up to report that the Yellow River had not fully frozen over. The multitude all turned pale. The prince prayed to the spirits of heaven and earth and to the rivers. When they arrived at the Zihedu crossing, the river had become solid ice, so they went straight over. At that time, Huizong and Qinzong (r. 1125-27) had already departed on their ‘northern hunt’, and an imperial rescript from Huizong was presented, which read: “It would be better to ascend the throne than come to rescue your [8] father and mother.” Moreover, there was a decree from the Yuanyou Empress addressed to the Prince of Kang, which said, in outline: “Only when the House of Han had suffered ten generations of hardship did the prosperity of Guangwu arise; the lord having been presented with nine sons, only Chong’er (Duke Wen of Jin, 697–628 BCE) remained.[2] This can only be heaven’s will; how could it possibly be by human design?” The Prince of Kang bowed and accepted this, ascending the throne in Nanjing.

Anon, Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 前1.6-8 (Tale 8)

錢王現夢

宋高宗,徽宗第九子也。母韋后在娠時,徽宗夜夢吳越王錢俶來謁,覺而異之,時大觀二年也。高宗生於宮中,紅光滿室。宣和二年,封康王。靖康之變,康王常質金人軍中,金國太子與康王同出射,連發三矢皆中,破其筈,纍纍懸於其上。金太子驚以為神,默計之曰:「宋太子生長 [7] 深宮,狃於富貴,鞍馬非其所長。今善射如此,意南朝揀選宗室中之長於武藝者冒名為質,必非真也。留之無益,不如遣還,換真太子來質乃善。」高宗由是得逸。遂易服間道奔竄,足力疲睏,乃假寐於崔府君廟階砌間,夢神人報曰:「金人追兵至,必速去之。」康王徬徨四顧,神曰:「已備馬門首伺侯矣,大王急行,毋為所及也。」康王驚夢,則馬已在其側矣。王踴躍上馬,疾馳而南,一日行七百里,渡河而馬不前,下視之,則泥馬也,始悟為神物之助。暨河渡,至一村莊,飢渴甚,謁飯於一老嫗。嫗延入莊內坐,復出莊前,則有數騎追至,問:「有一官人,狀貌若是,曾從此過否?」嫗思其言狀貌類謁飯者,乃答之:「已過數日矣。」追騎以鞭敲鞍曰:「可惜!可惜!」遂返而不追。嫗歸,語曰:「吾觀官人非客旅也,得非宮中人乎?適有追騎來問,吾已紿之而還矣。」康王曰:「吾奔逃至南,飢渴至此,既承見問,敢不實對,願密之。」嫗曰:「請大王安心。」少頃,辦飯進,因出銀數百兩以獻曰:「吾兒李若水也,已死於虜矣。國家大事,願大王勉之。」康王由此奔相州,揭榜召兵勤王。因登郡圃飛仙亭,視其牌額,持弓矢而祝曰:「若中此牌,則必聞京師音耗。」果三發三中,左右動色相賀。又語幕府曰: 「夜來夢皇帝脫所御袍賜吾,吾解舊衣而服(「服」原作「復」,據元刻本改。)所賜,此何祥也?」頃時京師闔門祗候秦仔齎蠟詔來,命為大元帥,速頒兵入衛。時王發兵相州,使臣馳報黃河未凍,衆失色,王禱天地河神。行至子河渡,而河冰凍已合,遂渡河。時徽宗、欽宗已北狩矣,有使臣曹勛自河北竄歸,進徽宗御札曰:「便可即真,來救 [8] 父母。」又奉元祐皇后手詔迎康王,其略曰:「漢家之厄十世,宜光武之中興;獻公之子九人,惟重耳之尚在。茲乃天意,夫豈人謀!」康王拜受,遂即位於南京。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.) Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986)

[1] This is Qian Chu 錢俶 (929-88, r. 947-78, courtesy name Wende 文德, known as Qian Hongchu 錢弘俶 until 960), the last king of Wuyue, who surrendered his kingdom to the Song. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qian_Chu.

[2] This seems to refer to the famous and unexpected ascendance of Duke Wen in 636 BCE after a period of turbulence. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duke_Wen_of_Jin.

Fated to Find Silver 得銀分定

In the Song Jiaxi era, the gengzi year (1240), when Governor Zhao Chongyou was Prefectural Judge of Jianningfu, the Second Privy Councillor Xu Qingsou wished to change and move the government office in order to extend his own residence. Zhao transmitted his request upwards and it was granted. On the day of the demolition, Councillor Xu came in person to supervise and observe, and subsequently a large urn was unearthed from the blossom step before the hall, with over two hundred ding of silver found. Prior to this, Zhao had often, when passing that place, noticed something like a white robe covering the ground, but on closer inspection there had never been anything to see. That which was subsequently found by Duke Xu can only have been waiting there for him! All such things are predestined.

Anon., Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 前1.42 (Tale 77):

得銀分定

宋嘉熙庚子,趙知縣崇逌任建寧府推官,大參徐清叟欲易推衙以廣其居,趙為申府得請。拆除之日,徐參親臨監視,乃於廳前花砌上掘得一大甕,得白金二百餘錠。先是趙推於彼處常見有物如白衣覆地,細視亦無所見。後為徐公所得,豈非留以待之!皆分定也。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.) Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986)

A Spirit Uproots A Tree 鬼拔樹

Towards the end of the Xingding 興定 era (1217-1220 CE), a peasant from Caozhou 曹州 was walking along the road one day, when he was caught in a sudden shower. From the empty air a voice spoke: “Brave enough?” He then heard a loud laughing sound. The person went on a further half-li, and saw a large willow tree torn up by its roots and thrown several dozen paces. In the mud there was the print of a great thigh and buttocks, about as big as a grain container. That spirit must have pulled up a tree and then just fallen on its back and laughed!

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), 2.26:

鬼拔樹

興定末,曹州一農民,一日行道中,忽驟雨。聞空中人語云:「敢否」?俄又聞大笑聲。此人行半里,見道左大柳樹拔根出,擲之十步外,泥中印大臀髀痕,如麥籠許,蓋神拔樹偃坐泥中破笑耳。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.) Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986)

Ma Daoyou 馬道猷

Under the Southern Qi (479-502 CE) Ma Daoyou served as Director of the Department of State Affairs. In the first year Yongming (483), seated in the palace he suddenly saw spirits filling the space before him; the people around him saw nothing. Soon after, two spirits entered his ears, pulling out his ethereal soul, which fell onto his shoes. He pointed at it to show people, saying, “Gentlemen, do you see this?” None of those around him could see anything, so they asked him what his ethereal soul looked like. Daoyou said: “The ethereal soul looks exactly like a toad.” He said: “There can be no way to survive. The spirits are now in the ears. Look at how they swell up.” The following day he died. Taken from Shuyiji.

Li Fang 李昉, et al., Taiping guangji 太平廣記 (Extensive Gleanings from the Era of Great Harmony), 10 vols (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1961), vii, 327.2992

馬道猷

南齊馬道猷為尚書令史。永明元年。坐省中。忽見鬼滿前。而傍人不見。須臾兩鬼入其耳中。推出魂。魂落屐上。指以示人。諸君見否。傍人並不見。問魂形狀云何。道猷曰。魂正似蝦蟇。云。必無活理。鬼今猶在耳中。視其耳皆腫。明日便死。出述異記

Ban Meng 班孟

Ban Meng’s background is unknown; some say they were a woman. Able to travel by flying for days at a time, they could also sit and talk to people from the empty air. They were also able to enter the earth, at first disappearing from feet to chest, then entering fully, only leaving a kerchief behind, which after a long time would disappear entirely, too. Slicing the ground by pointing, a well could be constructed ready to be draw from. Blowing the roof-tiles from houses, tiles would be sent flying among people’s houses and homes. Mulberry shoots numbering in the thousands, Meng could combine them all into one, piled like a mountain and remaining like that for more than ten days; by blowing on them they could be returned to growing as before in their former places. They could moreover swallow a mouthful of ink, stretch out paper before them, chew and spit it out, the whole forming characters across the paper, each bearing full meaning. They took wine and cinnabar, but over four hundred years less and less, eventually entering Dazhishan.

From Shenxianzhuan.

Li Fang 李昉, et al., Taiping guangji 太平廣記 (Extensive Gleanings from the Era of Great Harmony), 10 vols (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1961), ii, 61.382

班孟

班孟者。不知何許人也。或云女子也。能飛行經日。又能坐空虛中與人語。又能入地中。初去時沒足至胸。漸入。但餘冠幘。良久而盡沒不見。以指刺地。即成井可吸。吹人屋上瓦。瓦飛入人家間。桑果數千株。孟皆拔聚之成一。積如山。如此十餘日。吹之各還其故處如常。又能含墨一口中。舒紙着前。嚼墨噴之。皆成文字。竟紙。各有意義。服酒丹。年四百歲更少。入大治山中。出神仙傳

Moonlight Traces An Immortal 月影仙跡

Wang Tinggui was from Luxi, in Ancheng. His courtesy name was Minzhan, and he was a student of the imperial university, having passed the highest examinations. He once took leave of Hu Dan’an with a poem on the latter’s demotion to Xinzhou. Gui [?who? Qin Hui (1090-1155)?] heard of this and was angry, demoting him too. When Gui died, he was summoned to court once more, appointed Academician in the Cabinet for Promotion of Literature, but resigned the post and returned to live in seclusion in his home village, travelling around and resting at Mengcao Convent. In late spring, when the roseleaf raspberry was in full bloom, it was almost dawn when the waning moonlight illuminated a figure, seemingly dressed like a lay Buddhist, and who addressed a vegetable-washing servant, saying: “Please give us a poem; Lü Dongbin is coming to see you.” The servant said: “It is still early.” When the servant went in to announce this, Wang straightened his robe and hurried out, but could see only the moonlight outlining the form of a person on the ground. He kowtowed and bowed to them, but then there was nothing to be seen. He later amended the scrolls around the convent gate to read:

Moonlight traces immortal vestiges

Fragrant blooms bring spirit to the writing-brush.

Anon., Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 後1.133 (Tale 233):

月影仙跡

安成盧溪王庭珪,字民瞻,太學生(明刻本無「生」字。)登第。嘗以詩送胡澹庵貶新州。檜見而怒,例遭貶。檜死,召還朝,除敷文閣學士,致仕,歸遯丘園,遊息于夢草庵。莫春荼䕷盛開,天將曙,殘月照人,偶有衣白衣人來,與洗菜僕曰:「請與敷文說,呂洞賓來相見。」僕曰:「尚早。」及僕入語,王攬衣急出,但見月影,一人在地,遂扣而拜之,不復可見。後改庵前門帖云:「月影印仙迹,花香供筆靈。」

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).