Wang Fan’s Tomb 王樊冢

The Dunhuang shilu reports: When Wang Fan died, a thief opened his tomb and saw Wang Fan playing chupu (a form of boardgame) with someone; he rewarded the robber with wine, and the thief drank it in terror, watching someone lead a bronze horse out of the tomb. That night a divinity arrived at the city gate, announcing that it was the envoy of Wang Fan, that someone had opened his tomb, marking his lips by swallowing dark wine, and that when that person returned at dawn they could verify this and capture him. When the thief entered the city, those on the gate therefore bound and questioned him, and it was just as the divinity had said.

Li Rong 李冗, Du yi zhi, 獨異志 (Outstanding Fantastic Stories), 上1.8 (Tale 61):

王樊冢

《燉煌實錄》云:王樊卒,有盗開其冢,見王樊與人樗蒲,以酒賜盗者,盗者惶怖飲之,見有人牽銅馬出冢者。夜有神至城門,自言是王樊使,今有人發冢,以酒墨其唇,但至,可以驗而擒之。盗既入城,城門者乃縛詰之,如神言。

Li Rong 李冗, Du yi zhi, 獨異志 (Outstanding Fantastic Stories) in Du yi zhi, Xuanshi Zhi 獨異志,宣室志 (Outstanding Fantastic Stories, Stories from the Chamber of Dissemination), edited by Zhang Yongqin 张永钦 and Hou Zhiming 侯志明 (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1983)

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Human-Flesh Wontons 人肉餛飩

In the gengyin year of the Shaoding era (1230), the grain in the areas belonging to Ruizhou in Jiangxi ripened empty, and there was hunger and famine among the populace. Troublemakers in the affected region slaughtered cattle for market, but recklessly sold human flesh mixed and stuffed into it. The starved populace gathered ‘like spokes at a hub’, and it sold out with great speed; of what was left behind the beef was the majority. Therefore the people all looked to find the truth; they were arrested and taken to the government office, where they confessed one by one. When the officials thought about [73] the hubbub and chaos they made, they secretly decided they didn’t dare to impose the mandatory death penalty. On the basis of their confession, and as a person’s body does not contain much meat – there is only a little more than one-and-a-half strings of coins in weight that can be sliced off the buttocks and legs. Taking so many bodies, how can this be borne?

In the Jiading era (1208-24), the gengzi year,[1] Lin’an suffered a great drought, and the harvest failed. By the Liushui Bridge outside the city walls there were similarly deceitful types who killed people and picked off their flesh to make wonton, baozi dumplings and the like. In the spring of the xinchou year (either 1181 or 1241), this became especially serious; among the meat was skin tattooed with a recognisable pattern, although nobody dared to say so. All who bought meat had first to ask, “Is this polished-rice-pork? Or is it rice-husk-pork?” ‘Polished-rice-pork’ was human flesh; ‘rice-husk-pork’ was true pork. This matter later became the beginning of the Liu (i.e., Song) decline.

Anon., Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 前2.73-74 (Tale 127):

人肉餛飩

紹定庚寅,江西瑞州管下禾稼秀而不實,民間飢荒。屬地頑民屠牛為市,浪賣人肉雜而為餡,飢民輻輳,發賣盛行,而牛肉多有存者。以故人皆物色得實,緝捕到官,一一招伏。官司慮 [73] 此聲旁達,暗行予決,不敢明正典刑。據其供吐,人之一身苦無多肉,僅有臀腿亂削之餘有淨肉一緡半重。所得寧幾,何忍哉!

嘉定庚子,臨安大旱,歲飢。城外溜水橋亦騙死人剔其肉為餛飩包子之屬。辛丑春尤甚,其中間有花繡之皮,稍可辨認,人無敢言。凡買肉者必先問:「買米猪?買糠猪?」米猪則人肉也,糠猪則真猪也,後因劉自事始敗。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).

[1] This is an impossible date: the 37th cyclical year should be either 1240 or 1180; neither fit the regnal era specified.

Employing Magic for Theft 幻術謀財

[89] Yi Digong and his wife, of Chunbaishui in Yuanyi, were devotees of the Dao, and enjoyed offering hospitality to Daoists. One Liu Tianxi turned up, saying that Digong should eat with him. Liu took up paper and cut out a crane, and blew it onto the top of the hall, where it transformed into a real crane, and moved through the room. When Digong emerged in alarm to ask about this, the Daoist had already departed, leaving him frustrated and annoyed for some time. After five more days he arrived by riding the clouds, at which Digong and his wife bowed to him and said they wished to seek immortality through study of the Dao. This Tianxi declined because he had to cross the Kunlun to attend a banquet, but agreed to return in seven days; when he had finished speaking he mounted the clouds slowly and left; Digong and his wife treated him as a god.

Afterwards, when he came back as agreed, they again bowed to him, asking as to the method of studying to immortality. Tianxi said: “To study immortality, one must first traverse famous peaks and great rivers; now I will make an arrangement with Digong; you should send someone to pass Tengwang Tower in Longxing, arranging to arrive after several days, but with Digong setting off that same day.” When that day came, Tianxi and Digong boarded a boat together. He ordered Digong to close his eyes, and after a short period, the Tengwang Tower and the river and peaks around it were all clear before him, the person he had sent in advance waiting before the building, arguing with someone wearing broad shoes. Digong attached himself to Tianxi’s back, so that they could return; his subordinate was still unaware. After a short time, Digong awoke. After a further ten days, the servant returned; when Digong reproved him about his argument with the sandal-wearers he was terrified and astonished.

Because of this all of Digong’s household came to believe in this immortal, who lectured and explained studies in the way of immortality night and day. Tianxi spoke to Digong again; he should sell all their fields, property and stored goods, construct two large boats, sailing together through the rivers and lakes, seeking an auspicious area in which to scale the heights and view the landscape, which would make the change to immortality easy. Digong followed this teaching, going together with his wife, children and servants, saying farewell to their relatives, leaving their home village and climbing aboard on a favourable day. When the boat reached Longxing, Tianxi sent Digong and one or two of his followers into the town to but some goods. As soon as Digong stepped onto the riverbank, Tianxi ordered the boatmen steering both Digong’s family’s boat and his own to float away into the distance. A long time elapsed before his return, in the expanse of water he could not discern where the boat was, and nor was there anybody to ask; Digong began to realise he had been duped. The next day he informed the authorities; at that time Fang Jiafeng was in charge of river transport, and sent staff searching along the banks, bridges and fords, but eventually they lost his track, and Digong returned crestfallen.

After a year had passed, a Baishui trader who was involved in a commercial lawsuit happened to encounter a slave girl who spoke with a Baishui accent, but who refused to speak when questioned. He ascended into Digong’s house and told his wife, who ordered that he tell the full story, which went: “With her belonging to the village, she must be one of your relatives; I climbed the building in the morning of the following day, to seize the Daoist, return him to the village, and claim a share in the stolen property.” The next day, when a multitude of traders had indeed arrived, they bound the Daoist’s hands, and, due to his several crimes, but the Daoist had already lost his property. The multitude reported it to the [90] authorities, who sent a report to Hong. Hong, due to the report submitted by Digong the previous year, was finally able to return Digong’s wife to her home. After a further year, the Daoist came back, and Digong’s household waited on him as before, only saying: “Shame, shame. If things had been different the whole household could have become immortals.” He stayed a further six months, and it is still not known what magic he used to achieve all of this.

Anon., Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 前2.88-90 (Tale 153):

幻術謀財

[89] 袁宜春白水易迪功夫婦好道,喜接道人。有劉天錫來者,云迪功方食。劉以紙翦鶴吹入廳上,遂化真鶴行入所,迪功驚出問故,道人已去,懊恨久之。又五日乘雲至,迪功夫婦拜之,告以欲求仙學道。於是天錫辭以過崐崘赴宴,約七日再至,言畢乘雲冉冉而去,迪功夫婦神之。後如約來,又拜之,問學仙之法,天錫云:「若學仙,先須遍歷名山大川,今與迪功約,可遣一人過隆興滕王閣,約幾日至,卻於是日與迪功同往。」迪功欲驗其言,遂遣人行,且云:「此至隆興約八日。」至其日,天錫與迪功登舟,令迪功閉目,片時,則滕王閣江山歷歷皆在目中,所遣之人已在閣上,與博屨者喧爭矣。迪功附其背使之歸,其人不知。有頃,迪功醒。又十日僕歸,迪功責其博屨喧爭之事,僕怪駭。由是迪功之家皆信為神仙,日夜講明學仙之道。天錫復與迪功言,當盡鬻所有之田產並所藏之貨物,造二大舟,共遊江湖,求福地而登覽之,則求仙易矣。迪功盡如其教,與妻孥臧獲之屬,辭親戚,別鄉井,卜日登舟。舟次隆興,天錫驅迪功與一二從者入城市物。迪功既登岸,天錫令舟人駕迪功家眷之舟與自己之舟飄然遠去。久之方歸,渺不知舟之所在,且無所問,迪功始以為欺己。次日告之官,時方蛟峰為漕,遣人沿岸橋津物色,竟失蹤跡,迪功怏怏而歸。又一年間,白水有為商於獄市者,忽見一婢似白水人聲音,問之,婢不言,登樓告迪功之婦,婦令人告之故,且云:「既為鄉人,可相作親屬,明日午前登樓擒道人,則我可歸故鄉,所攜之物當中分之。」明午,衆商果至,手紐道人,數以脫騙之罪,而道人已隨手失矣。衆相 [90] 與告官,官移文於洪。洪回文具迪功去年所告之因,迪功之婦始得回鄉。又明年,道人再來,迪功之家待之如舊,但云:「可惜可惜,不然全家可仙矣。」又留半年始去,竟不知其何術也。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).