Chancellor In The Mountains 山中宰相

Tao Hongjing (452-536 CE) lived as a recluse on Maoshan, and whenever Emperor Wu of Liang (464-549) faced a major problem, he would send an express edict to him for counsel on the decision. People at the time called him ‘Chancellor in the Mountains’.

Li Rong 李冗, Du yi zhi 獨異志 (Outstanding Fantastic Stories), 上1.14 (Tale 75):

山中宰相

陶弘景隱居茆山,梁武帝每有大事,飛詔與之參決。時人謂隱居為「山中宰相」。

Li Rong 李冗, Du yi zhi, 獨異志 (Outstanding Fantastic Stories) in Du yi zhi, Xuanshi Zhi 獨異志,宣室志 (Outstanding Fantastic Stories, Stories from the Chamber of Dissemination), edited by Zhang Yongqin 张永钦 and Hou Zhiming 侯志明 (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1983)

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Murong Chui 慕容垂

Tang Taizong (r. 626-49 CE) was campaigning in Liao and when he reached Dingzhou there was a spirit by the roadside, dressed in white robes and standing tall atop a tomb, its spirited demeanour especially distinctive. When Taizong sent people to question it, it replied: “Our long-ago defeated the lord’s long-ago; the lord’s present defeats our present. Glory and splendour differ in each age; what use is the bitterness of chasing and seeking them?” Its speech being complete, it vanished. On further questioning, the tomb turned out to be that of Murong Chui.[1]

Li Fang 李昉, et al., Taiping guangji 太平廣記 (Extensive Gleanings from the Era of Great Harmony), 10 vols (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1961), vii, 327.2601

慕容垂

唐太宗征遼,行至定州,路側有一鬼,衣黃衣,立高冢上,神彩特異。太宗遣使問之,答曰:「我昔勝君昔,君今勝我今。榮華各異代,何用苦追尋。」言訖不見,問之,乃慕容垂墓。(出《靈怪集》)

[1] Murong Chui 慕容垂 (326-96 CE), a controversial figure, famously both betrayed and betrayer in struggles for power. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murong_Chui.

A Temple Spirit Seizes A Fan 廟鬼奪人扇

Before Fan Zhi, Duke of Lu (911-964 CE), became influential, he was seated in a teahouse in Fengqiu, holding a fan on which was inscribed ‘The heat of summer drives out corrupt officials; a pure breeze brings back the departed.’ A strange and ugly figure suddenly appeared before him and bowed, saying: “How can the injustice of corrupt government end like the summer heat? Someday the gentleman will have to think deeply about this matter.” It then picked up the fan and departed. The gentleman was left sorrowful and unable to fathom the matter. Several days after, he passed a temple and saw a short spirit figure made of earth and wood – looking just like the strange and ugly person from the teahouse – holding his fan in its hands; the gentleman was astonished by this. Afterwards, on attaining a position of power, his first action was to consult on settling the [226] unified code of punishment.

Anon., Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi, 後2.225-26 (Tale 402):

廟鬼奪人扇

范魯公質未顯時,坐封丘茶肆,手持扇,偶題「大暑去酷吏,清風來故人。」忽有一怪陋人前揖曰:「世之酷吏冤抑何止如大暑,公他日當深究此弊。」因攜其扇而去。公憫然莫測。後數日,過一廟,見一土木短鬼,狀貌酷類茶肆中者,扇亦在其手中,公心異焉。後致大用,首建議詳定 [226] 刑統。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).

The Two Sages of Yuelu Monastery 岳麓寺二聖

In Hengyue there was the Yuelu Monastery, rebuilt and refurbished in brilliant gold and jade, its lustre dazzling everyone. A wandering Hu (northwestern) monk visited the temple, and addressed its abbot: “If, at the northeastern corner [214] a Tusita Bridge could be built over a small stream, once completed it would resemble the Western Heaven.” The following day the abbot brought together a multitude to discuss this transformation, and after some years it was complete.

The two sages of the temple gate then appeared to the abbot in a dream, saying: “This temple resembles the Western Heaven above, but now it falls short and the spirit of Mars is coming to burn and seize it. You should urgently take your multitude south to meet him by the ten li bridge.” On awaking, the abbot was terrified, and gathered his monks to go out front and wait. From dawn to evening, nobody came. When the sky darkened, they suddenly saw a priest, hair loose and unkempt around his temples, his clothes old and shabby, approaching them very slowly. The crowd of monks bowed as they saw him, leading him to the temple, making a great gathering with food and chanting, treating him with great honour, and begging him sorrowfully: “This temple has been built and repaired through the begging of alms; it is newly completed after more than a decade of hard work. If it should one day be reduced to a field of ashes, how could that not be regretted? We beg that the star lord would have a special mercy on us, and extend a brief pardon.” The priest was astonished, and said: “How could a poor cleric have such power?” The crowd of monks begged and supplicated over and over, so he asked: “Who was it that told you I was the spirit of Mars? If I could understand, perhaps this can be sorted out.” The abbot had no choice but to speak directly: “The two sages of the temple gate manifested in a dream.” The priest said: “You should make up several dozen widths of sticky paper and build them together to resemble the halls and chambers of this temple. Then burn it with lots of spirit money, so as to dispel this issue.”

The assembled monks did as he instructed, and burned it all. Just after the fifth watch (about dawn), the multitude escorted the priest out through the mountain gate, where he scolded the two sages: “Who taught you to shoot your mouths off like this? Who taught you to see the bone and not the flesh, the flesh and not the bone?” When they escorted him to the bridge of the previous day, cloud and mist arose on all sides, and the priest suddenly vanished. When the multitude returned to the mountain gate, the two sages collapsed into earth and dust, leaving only their wooden frames. When the abbot had them re-sculpted, within ten days they had fallen apart once more. To this day the temple’s mountain gate lacks its two guardian sages.

後2.213-14 (Tale 379):

岳麓寺二聖

衡岳有岳麓寺,重新修建,金碧輝煌,光彩爍人。有胡僧雲遊詣寺,與寺主言:「若於東北角 [214] 上小溪中造一座兜率橋,成則類西天矣。」寺主翌日集大衆題化,積年橋成。山門下二聖忽現夢於寺主云:「本寺類西天上界,今差火德星君來焚取,可急聚大衆南去十里溪橋邊迎之。」夢覺,寺主驚,遂集僧衆前去往候。自朝至晚,無往來者。天將昏,忽有一道人,鬢髮鬅鬙,身衣藍縷,徐徐然來。僧衆見之下拜,迎至寺,大作齋會,待之甚至,哀懇之曰:「此寺緣化修造,以十數年之辛勤方能圓就,若一旦為煨燼之場,寧不可惜!慾望星君特發慈悲,姑與原宥。」道人驚曰:「貧道安有此!」僧衆再三哀告不已,乃問曰:「誰與汝說我是火德星君,言若明白,當與料理。」寺主不得已,直云:「山門下二聖現夢。」道人云:「可打黏紙數十幅,一一綵繪本寺殿宇房廊樣式,多將紙錢前來燒化,庶可消禳。」僧衆如其教焚訖。五更初,衆送道人出山門下,乃指駡二聖云:「誰教汝饒舌,教汝骨不見肉,肉不見骨。」及送至昨日橋邊,雲霧四起,道人倏然不見。衆回山門,則二聖泥土皆落,隻有木胎。寺主再裝塑之,越旬日又落。至今本寺山門下無金剛二聖也。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).

A Snake in the Skin 皮中有蛇

‘Hua Tuo’s Unofficial Biography’ relates: There was a woman from Langya who developed a sore on her right thigh, which tickled but didn’t hurt, recovering but then growing further. Tuo said: “One ought to obtain a dog the colour of rice husk and drag it with horses, exchanging when wearied, for fifty li; decapitate it and smear the blood on the itchy spot, which will then [improve].” This advice was followed. Immediately a snake was seen moving in her skin; placing an iron needle along its length they drew it out – it was perhaps three feet long – and seven days later she had quite recovered.

Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志, 2.228 (Tale 408):

皮中有蛇

《華佗別傳》曰:琅琊有女子,右股上有瘡,癢而不痛,愈而復作。佗曰:「當得稻穅色犬擊馬,頓走出五十里,斷頭取血,塗癢處方可。」乃從之。須臾有蛇在皮中動,以鐵針橫〔貫〕據明刻本補。引出,長三尺許,七日頓愈。

Yuan Haowen 元好問, Chang Zhenguo 常振國 (ed), Xu Yijian zhi 續夷堅志 (Continued Records of the Listener), and Anon., Jin Xin 金心 (ed.), Huhai xinwen yijian xuzhi 湖海新聞夷堅續志 (Continuation of Records of the Listener with New Items from the Lakes and Seas) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1986).

A much earlier version is found in the Soushenji (translated by Kenneth J. Dewoskin and J.I. Crump, Jr.):

Hua T’o Cures an Ulcer with a Dog and Two Horses (3,69)

Hua T’o (T. Yuan-hua) of the state of P’ei was also known as Hua Fu. Liu Hsün of Lang-ya, Grand Protector of Ho-nei, had a daughter who was about twenty. Her feet troubled her, and on the inside of her left thigh she had tumor [sic] that, though it did not pain her, itched. The tumor would be inactive for several weeks and then would suddenly break out. This went on for seven or eight years until finally Lu Hsün received T’o and asked him to examine her.

“This is easily cured,” said Hua T’o. “Prepare a brown dog, the color of rice chaff, and have two sound horses procured.” Hua T’o then tied a rope to the dog’s neck, and the horse was made to drag the dog at a gallop. When the first horse was exhausted he was exchanged for the other until at least thirty li had been covered. By then the dog could no longer walk, so a man was detailed to drag it until a total of fifty li had been traveled.

The girl was then drugged. When she was comfortable and unconscious, the dog’s belly, at a place near the hind leg, was opened with a great knife. This wound was placed two or three inches from the site of the girl’s ulcer, and a serpentine creature was observed coming forth from it. An iron awl was thrust through the serpent’s head parallel to the girl’s leg. The thing wriggled beneath the girl’s skin for some time but eventually grew still and was drawn out.

The creature was about three feet long and was clearly a snake. However, though it had eye sockets, it had no eyeballs and its scales faced forward.

Salve was later spread on the ulcer, and the girl was cured in seven days.[1]

Another, abbreviated, version of this is found in Tale 323 in the Tang-era collection Du Yi Zhi 獨異志 (Outstanding Fantastic Stories), collated by Li Rong 李冗:

In the realm of Wei there was a woman who was extremely beautiful, but had remained unmarried for a long time, because she often suffered a sore on her right knee that wept pus without cease. Encountering Hua Tuo on the road, her father questioned him about it. Tuo said: “Have someone ride a horse, pulling along a chestnut-coloured dog, and gallop for thirty li. Return, sever and hang up the dog’s right foot.” Presently, a red snake emerged from the sore and [66] entered the dog’s paw. Her illness was then cured.[2]

This version was picked up and included in the tenth-century compilation Taiping guangji 太平廣記 (Extensive Gleanings from the Era of Great Harmony), where it is combined with another story of Hua Tuo’s expertise:

Hua Tuo 華佗

Hua Tuo of Wei was a skilled physician. Once, the prefectural commander became very ill. Tuo encountered him, and the commander ordered him to perform a diagnosis and treatment, but Tuo withdrew, addressing his son: “The cause of the gentleman’s illness is unusual. There is an accumulation of blood in the chest. He should be made very angry, so that it can be spat out. Then he will be able to expel the malady. Otherwise there is no chance for life. His son can speak in full about his father’s entire life’s transgressions. I withdraw and pass the responsibility to you.” The son said: “If a cure can be effected, what should not be said?” Then he detailed all his father’s misdeeds and mistakes, telling all to Tuo. Tuo therefore composed and left a letter scolding the man. The father grew extremely angry, dispatching clerks to arrest Tuo, but Tuo did not come back. He then vomited more than a sheng (about a litre) of black blood. His illness was then cured. Moreover, there was a woman who was extremely beautiful, but had remained unmarried for a long time, because she often suffered a sore on her right knee that wept pus without cease. Encountering Hua Tuo on the road, her father questioned him about it. Tuo said: “Have someone ride a horse, pulling along a chestnut-coloured dog, and galloping for thirty li. Return, cook and sever the dog’s right foot, then attach it to the sore.” Presently, a red snake emerged from the sore and [66] entered the dog’s paw. Her illness was then cured.[3]

[1] Gan Bao, Kenneth J. Dewoskin and J.I. Crump, Jr. (trans), In Search of the Supernatural: The Written Record (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press), p.41. Soushenji 3.41:

華陀

沛國華陀,字元化,一名旉。瑯邪劉勳為河內太守,有女年幾二十,苦脚左膝裏有瘡,癢而不痛。瘡愈,數十日復發。如此七八年。迎佗使視。佗曰:「是易治之。」當得稻糠黃色犬一頭,好馬二匹,以繩繫犬頸,使走馬牽犬,馬極輒易。計馬走三十餘里,犬不能行。復令步人拖曳,計向五十里。乃以藥飲女,女卽安卧,不知人。因取大刀,斷犬腹近後脚之前。以所斷之處向瘡口,令二三寸停之。須臾,有若蛇者從瘡中出,便以鐵椎橫貫蛇頭。蛇在皮中動摇良久,須臾不動,乃牽出,長三尺許,純是蛇,但有眼處,而無瞳子,又逆鱗耳。以膏散著瘡中,七日愈。

[2] Li Rong 李冗, Du yi zhi, 獨異志 (Outstanding Fantastic Stories) in Du yi zhi, Xuanshi Zhi 獨異志,宣室志 (Outstanding Fantastic Stories, Stories from the Chamber of Dissemination), edited by Zhang Yongqin 张永钦 and Hou Zhiming 侯志明 (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1983), pp. 65-66:

魏國有女子,極美麗,踰時不嫁,以右膝上常患一瘡,膿水不絕。遇華陀過,其父問之。陀曰:「使人乘馬,牽一栗色犬,走三十里。歸而截犬右足挂之。」俄頃,一赤蛇從瘡出而 [66] 入犬足,其疾遂愈。

[3] Li Fang 李昉, et al., Taiping guangji 太平廣記 (Extensive Gleanings from the Era of Great Harmony), 10 vols (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1961), 218.1664-65:

魏華佗善醫。嘗有郡守病甚。佗過之。郡守令佗診候。佗退。謂其子曰。使君病有異於常。積瘀血在腹中。當極怒嘔血。卽能去疾。不爾無生矣。子能盡言家君平昔之愆。吾疏而責之。其子曰。若獲愈。何謂不言。於是具以父從來所為乖誤者。盡示佗。佗留書責罵之。父大怒。發吏捕佗。佗不至。遂嘔黑血升餘。其疾乃平。又有女子極美麗。過時不嫁。以右膝上常患一瘡。膿水不絕。華陀過。其父問之。陀曰。使人乘馬。牽一栗色狗走三十里。歸而熱截右足。挂瘡上。俄有一赤蛇從瘡出。而入犬足中。其疾遂平。出獨異志